Before I scraped the web, for over a period of two to three weeks, the homelessness collaboration group I am working with went through several brainstorming sessions to write and map out what we had individually learned thus far. The purpose was to gain different and broader perspectives from each other’s research and points of view.
Throughout the last few weeks we have engaged with many different mind-mapping exercises in order to engage with our topics in a collaborative and comprehensive manner.
Mind mapping exercises are a great way to visually organise information when trying to explore and solve complex problems as they can demonstrate relationships between information, a key requirement when looking at interrelated issues and participants. The collaborative mind mapping exercises facilitated in-class discussions and debates around complex issues, allowing us to delve into aspects of these sub-issues that we hadn’t previously considered.
The mind mapping exercise that we completed in class gave us greater insights into our problem statement for assessment task three.
Since completing this map, I have fleshed out and refined my problem statement. In completing the prompts for my mind map, I’ve integrated the areas that I focused on within my research, namely; the effect the media and government have had on narratives related to refugee and asylum seekers issues, the dehumanising portrayal of refugees which has lead to fear and disengagement within the public, and the potential social media platforms (such as Twitter) have to express narratives to that counter those in mainstream media.
My problem statement came to fruition by answering some basic prompt questions, recording them on the mind map and observing some of the interconnected responses. As I had already established a broad area to focus on -restating a sense of identity and humanity amongst refugees to shift public perceptions- my responses were given with reference to that framework.
Who are the primary participants involved in this issue? As we don’t live in a societal vacuum there are multiple overlapping participants that lie at the core of refugee and asylum seeker issues. It feels impolitic to consider these participants in isolation, as that would separate how each participant proliferates and is influenced by one another. It’s important to remember that the reason refugee and asylum seekers are considered an issue is as a direct result of politicised and institutionalised racism, a situation that implicates everyone, especially our media and governing bodies.
The subject area I’m specifically looking into directly focuses on refugee and asylum seeker narratives and ways to connect this with a public audience. Through primary research I found that a heightened sense of apathy for refugee issues stemmed from a sense of disconnection and isolation from the people and the subject matter. It’s important that the refugee narratives are accessible for the general public and come directly from refugees and asylum seekers themselves. What are the boundaries of this problem? The boundaries of this problem lie in a number of structural and societal issues that are in many way interconnected. On a structural level there are issues which affect and are affected by governing bodies; the Australian government, the United Nations, treaties and relations between foreign countries and even international maritime laws. On a societal level, boundaries are a result of miscommunication and a general lack of understanding. They encompass a range of misrepresentations that are perpetuated throughout the media and as a result of censorship laws.
Why should we be engaging in solving these issues? We should be engaging with these issues as it’s a basic human right to seek asylum. It’s the responsibility of people in other countries to assist when people are displaced as a result of persecution. A denial of these basic human rights is a denial of compassion and of our humanity.
Where are these issues occurring? Whilst my focus area is around refugees in Australis’s offshore processing centres (Nauru and Manus) the refugee crises is a global humanitarian issue, effecting tens of millions of people around the world. The more abstract issue of racial intolerance permeates our societies around the world, fuelled by governments and mainstream media outlets. When did this occurred? Is it currently occurring? The displacement of people as a result of persecution and violence is not a modern phenomenon – it’s been occurring for hundreds of years. In the last 20 years however, this issue has been politicised as a threat to quality of life. It’s in these last 20 years that we’ve seen laws introduced that highlight our societies growing conservative nature.
Emergent practices and design thinking is required for addressing complex issues such as these explored within this subject. With this level of complexity and depth, it’s easy for the individual to become overwhelmed, to feel the issue is too big to make an impact. Over the last few months, I’ve learned the value of in-depth research within deeply complex issues. Discovering manageable focus areas and tangible solutions within design encourages social and attitudinal change from a grassroots level. This exercise was helpful in that it motivated us to collate and organise ideas in order to find manageable and focused design solutions.
Whilst I was absent for the group mapping session, I was able to gain insights from other class members filling me in, and recreating the maps they made together in class. The thing that struck me the most was the general ease in mapping and making connections in comparison to the first mapping task. It pointed out the huge gap in knowledge that has been filled through collaborative research and discussion, and it was much easier to gain an understanding of how different people play roles within the issue.
The first map is the stakeholder’s within the issue. The previous stakeholder’s map was reasonably difficult to fill the space and was all over the place and unorganized. With the additional knowledge it was easy to break down the stakeholders into succinct subcategories that covered all areas. The biggest difference I can point out in the ‘human’ section is that categories and sections have become un-gendered. The last stakeholder map pulled apart men and women and the stereotypical differences between who would effect them, however this version manages to cover all bases without gendering. I think there is accuracy with how large the media section is and I feel as though media plays an enormous role as it infiltrates information to the public. I found the coverage of video games particularly interesting as there are such a large amount of extremely sexist video games –as the times stated; “In some games, you can even have your character pay a woman for sex and then kill her, if you are so inclined.” (Sifferlin 2016) This is having a huge impact on players, particularly young men – “They found that boys who played the games containing sexism and violence were more likely to identify with the character they were playing. They also reported less empathy toward the images of female victims.” (Sifferlin 2016) I previously hadn’t considered video games as a part of the media; but was incredibly intrigued to find out more and absolutely appalled when I did. Whilst it is only a game, what kind of messages are we sending – particularly as a huge sector of players are young boys! (Sorry for the tangent…)
The second map was considering the controversies, emotions and motives. I found this mapping process particularly helpful to step inside the shoes of someone else and completely unpick and understand their perspective. I think it’s important to question and try to understand different perspectives of the issue (i.e. not identifying publically as a feminist) in order to induce change around the issue (i.e. making it a comfortable experience to identify as a feminist and cleansing the stigma that comes with it).
The third map explored the connections between human and non human stakeholders within “reluctance to identify with the term feminism.” This map proved how far my knowledge has come within the topic as there is no way I would’ve been able to identify and connect the stakeholders in an in-depth way like this. Whilst this map could be extended on (and probably go forever) I think it was a really valuable learning curve in that it made me realized that each issue and each approach to change will not only effect the intended audience, but will have a knock on effect to several other human and non-human stakeholders that may not be immediately obvious.
The final map is an exploration of a particular non-human element exploring the different issues and challenges, capacities, associates, politics, value alignment and hierarchies associated with this element. This map focuses on clothing and by breaking it down into these categories, we were able to understand all the different aspects and influences it has on the issue within society. We covered how traditions and gender norms influence a way of thinking about clothing; and how this infiltrates into common situations and effects how people are viewed. We also covered the influences of religion, individualism and freedom of choice. The most interesting topic unveiled was the ‘excuse’ of sexual assault being provoked by a woman’s representation of herself. With the treatment of peers and social media (due to the ways of thinking in society) it doesn’t really seem surprising that defenders of sex offenders see it as justifiable to blame a woman’s attire as inviting or ‘asking for it’. This is in dire need of change, and whilst it has started to; it is crucial that we remove stigmas and stereotypes and reinforce that; no matter what someone’s wearing it is not okay to sexually assault someone – ever.
This mapping exercise has underlined that this issue is massive, with so many connecting elements and influencing factors. In order to truly achieve gender equality, empowerment of both sexes, and freedom of individuality there needs to be a collective shift and a large community involvement as there are so many intrinsic connections and knock on effects to seemingly unrelated areas.
Meacock, L. 2016, Mapping Exercises, University of Technology Sydney, .
Below are three iterations of collaborative issue and stakeholder maps in chronological order, that address the issue of housing affordability. The first map that was created admittedly lacks clarity in its links between stakeholders and has quite a few generalisations and/or inaccuracies. It is rewarding to see how the maps become more precise and detailed with each iteration—our continued research into the issue leads to a deeper understanding of its stakeholders. With each iteration we become more specific by naming particular individuals and organisations as well as introducing non-human actors. Creating networks of stakeholders, both human and non-human, allows us to consider meaningful change on a broad scale. It urges us to consider how our design may have a flow-on effect that impacts an immediate but also a peripheral audience.
Working with peers allows for critical and insightful exploration. Despite researching the same topic, each person brings to the table a different focus and opinion on the issue. Additionally, through sharing our findings, we encourage each other to explore new avenues and/or consolidate existing research. Given that everyone is dedicated and invested in the issue, group discussions and mapping exercises are thoroughly energetic and productive.
Polemic Issues Mapping
I also wanted to comment on the polemic issues map because that was a collaborative exercise pivotal to informing my approach to this project.
Working collaboratively sets up an open and comfortable platform for people to discuss, challenge, agree, disagree, contemplate and speculate. In week 5, I worked with a partner to map out polemic topics and their associated emotions and stakeholders. This was an exhilarating exercise, as discussing the emotional aspects of controversial issues for various stakeholders, established powerful human connections to the matters at hand. Being able to freely exchange thoughts and opinions with my partner was very constructive as it helped uncover the multiple facets of each issue. I found it very insightful to consider emotions as non-human actors active within the issue. Peoples’ reactions, feelings and experiences about polemic issues were valid points of discussion and debate. Identifying problem areas where particular stakeholders are particularly struggling or affected by a polemic topic, highlighted potential areas for a design proposition to be situated and/or intervene.
In the issue mapping workshop, we’ve analysed and speculated around the issues, associations, stakeholders, human and non-human values within our issue of online privacy. What we found interesting was the vast spectrum of controversies around data security, online privacy, the social, economic & political factors of this broad concept. So the initial input we had was the categorise the main variables that contributed to the 3 focuses, and they were: Individuals, Internet and governments/ corporations/ organisations.
From here, we’ve focused on a particular aspect of online privacy, that being, governments and individuals and how they relate or differ. One interesting point that determines its changes is the presence of online activity. The idea of a global sensation being more open and vulnerable. Both individuals and corporations strive for property ownership which ultimately as a collation of data. It is driven by business and profit incentives. Social media as a platform for communication and exchange has contributed extensively to the social and economical factors of online privacy. For example, Google, Facebook, telecommunication services such as Telstra rely on the personal data and interactions of individuals to stimulate a global network.
Once we’ve acknowledged this complex network, we then delved into characteristics and features of our issues. Creating a data set of objects and words derived from the themes (see map above). We also looked into the paradoxes and controversies of online privacy and the emotions/ motivations that outline their objectives.
Understanding how individuals, the internet and the government/ organisation plays a critical role in this intricate network, It opens up possibilities and design orientated scenarios to approach for our design responses. I was really interested in looking into the relationship of digital technology and their association with data. In particular, I wanted to understand the role of a surveillance camera in a public/ private space and the interactivities with the general audience. This will inform my approach for the designed response.
The collaborative workshop is a series of mapping exercises in class considering in the relationship of team composition, effective communication, distribution, and co-ordination in order to help build deeper understanding into the issue, allows each member has an opportunity to speak and share understanding by brainstorming to toward insightful outcomes. My group members had different approach in mental health placing the issue in different angles that helped me to uncover the best information and the learning goes much deeper. In terms of collaborative group, we found that a powerful approach to understanding the stakeholders that were identified in relationships with the key words related to mental health, who/which influencers who/which to develop appropriate messages to connect with them. From this brainstorming, the most voted words were related to negative emotion and behavior ‘invisible’, ‘exhausted’, ’victim’, ‘judgement’, ‘stress’, majority affects the individuals through social media.
It was interesting in controversy mapping involves the conflict between economic benefit and humanities progress in mental health. From the feedback from our tutor, I keep working on the actor mapping, and focus on specific area of my depression issue. I chose to analyse the international student as an actor of Mental Health cause Australia is host to many thousands of international students of an age when mental illnesses are most likely to surface, has influence much in emotional and physical well-being.
During group process, we together pointed out and clarified a variety of paticipants such as medicare, policies, and social media, education, school, family and individuals that look beyond helping me with a problem, emphasize action and influence as well as reaction and adaption on mental illness.
What I learned from the collaborative workshop is a number of learning roles and ability to establish the relationship to the other team members and negotiale in group discussion. I feel these exercises especially actor mapping are very helpful to understand the issue not only one side but see the issue in many different angles in the relationship of stakeholders and the importance of actor on mental health fiels to get correct answer involving to mental illness. I further gained more comprehensive deep knowledge of the mental health issue and identify what I missed within secondary research. This will help me to identify the problem I want to target for engagement. Thus, to solve the mental health issue, whether it’s creating a call to action, influencing their thinking and decision, making or targeting some kind of behaviour change, now focusing on developing the campaign messages according to each individual’s level of interest and influence. From the things we explored, I will further gain more insight of my design proposition.
In this week, we were asked to look back at our initial stakeholders map form Week 2 and see the relations between the stakeholders. However, I worked with different partner from my previous group that made this map together. At first, it was a bit hard to combine all our information and datas but this experience has allowed me to see this issue in different perspective. After all, she also chose refugee and asylum seekers as her main topic so that it is just a matter of time until we can work together as a team to collaborate.
In the second map is what we came out together by combining all our information. We categorise them much more specific and refining the terms even more.
MAP 02: The Polemics and Their Emotions
The second map discussed about the polemics of the issue and the emotion attached to them. Upon looking at the map for the second time, I realised that there were so many negative emotions written on the paper. All of them are what might the refugees or other stakeholders felt about the controversy. As listed in the map above, the polemics that attract both of us the most are:
Legitimate Refugee VS Illegal Refugee
Detention Centre VS Funding
Boat People VS Security Threat
The other polemics are quite broad, which is why it was hard to describe the emotions in result of the polemics. It was quite hard for me to think of any other polemics out there, as it requires a high level of understanding of the issue and massive researches. However, by doing this in a group of two, I feel more confident with what I understand, confirmed them to my partner, and made these collaborative maps.
MAP 03: Mapping the Stakeholders in the Polemics
It was quite confusing to write specific stakeholders and made a map where the actors intersect or diverge. We kept looking back at our main stakeholders map and then see if we can include related stakeholders to this polemics. As stated above, we started first with the Legitimate Refugees VS Illegal Refugees because we felt like that’s one of the biggest aspect in this issue.
This whole subject has been all about mapping. Even though I find mapping a tedious and boring task, it has been quite helpful in sorting out the various stakeholders involved within the issue of mental health. Since our first mapping exercise in week 3, my group and I have created about 6 different iterations. These various maps have given me a broader view of the issue and I have also gained further insights through our group discussions in class.
Collaboratively mapping with my group members has been an interesting experience as we have all been focusing in on a different area within the issue of mental health such as stigma, borderline and genetics. With all our different perspectives and knowledge, we have created a series of maps rich with insights and discussions. It is also interesting to see how other group members topics link to mine own about stigma and how I can use their research for my own topic.
Week 3 // Stakeholder Map
As I have already explained in POST 3, the process of mapping participants in relation to mental health has been enlightening and gave me a clearer idea of who are involved and why. This first map is quite general and basically outline stakeholders such as the government, media and health professionals.
Week 3 // Revised Stakeholder Map
I further refined our stakeholder map digitally and fleshed out our colour coding system to differentiate the stakeholders involved and the sentiments towards them: organisations, human, education, actions and obstacles. I was then able to make connections between the various stakeholders which helped specify more issues within mental health.
Week 4 // Word Association
For this exercise, my group and I brainstormed words associated with mental health. It was interesting to compare the words that each group member brainstormed. There were some words that doubled up such as stigma and ignorance which demonstrated generalisations and main problems within the issue. On the opposite side of each word card, we also had to write an antonym which was quite difficult for some words. What I found most interesting was the emotive words that we came up with as I hadn’t taken emotions into consideration with my own word list. Describing the feelings felt by people affected my mental health issues allows us to empathise with them and understand the issue better.
The next stage was selecting paired words to arrange 20 of our mental health words onto a scale. We selected positive and negative as our scale. It was interesting to see the scale once we flipped with words over to reveal the antonyms as it was the exact reverse.
After we generated all these words, arranged them and voted on the best ones, we moved onto creating (yep you guessed it) another stakeholder map. This map was based around three words that we selected which were uncertainty, ignorance and future. This helped connect the word associations to the players involved in the issue and further fleshed out our understanding of who is involved and why.
So at this point, we have created about 3 maps on stakeholders and word associations that raised discussions and ideas about mental health. It was no surprise to me then that in Week 5 we were asked to draw up more maps – yay.
Week 5 // Lack of Knowledge Map
In the first map, we took one aspect of our issue which was lack of knowledge and brainstormed about connected areas such as people, history, behaviours and pressures. Some new insights that we brainstormed were biological limitations, preconceived archetypes of mentally ill people, pressures and assumptions and culture. This quick paced exercise was valuable as it opened up some new areas of our issue that we hadn’t considered before.
Week 5 // Controversies Map
The second map we created in this exercise outlined the controversies and debates within the issue of mental health based on the previous brainstorm. We identified controversies such as biology vs mentality, social status vs situation, needs vs wants and past vs present. It was helpful dividing our issue into these debates as we uncovered new ideas and insights.
Week 5 // Needs Vs Wants Map
The third map focused in on one of the controversies from the second map which was Needs vs. Wants. This debate is centred around the mindset of people thinking that mentally ill individuals are just attention seeking which is not the truth. We identified that there needs to be more communication around the issue of mental health and we want to further understand the needs and wants of people affected my mental health issues.
Week 5// Nike Map?
In the fourth and final map, we selected a very specific area within our last map. We first selected the broad area of media, then advertising, then consumer goods and finally selected the brand Nike. We were quite confused as to how this related back to the issue of mental health…
As much as hate mind-maps, I will admit that these exercises were helpful in my understanding of my issue. Through the various maps, we explored the different ideas, problems, perspectives and debates associated to mental health. Each group member had insightful and different input into the creation of these maps and through them, I learnt and considered more about my specific topic. It’s amazing how once you get into a discussion, the ideas just flow and the conversation smoothly progresses into deeper ideas and understandings. If i did all these mapping exercises by myself, they wouldn’t even be half the content they are now. Co-mapping with others is invaluable and I love to listen to other people’s views and beliefs.
From these mapping exercises, a possible design led solution/ action for change for the issues within mental health could manifest as an interactive installation outlining the stakeholders involved and emotions experiences. I believe emotions and empathy is a key factor in understanding mental health issues. An engaging design like an installation would make the issue real to the audience.
In terms of the mapping exercises themselves, I found them extremely tedious. I understand it is important torepeat work, but I believe it was unnecessary in this case. The amount of work on these mapping exercises could have been completed within one tutorial. That being said, it is good to take the time to reflect on ideas. So, I guess I am kind of on the fence for this task; I found it valuable in building my knowledge but the time spent on it was unnecessary. I would have rather spent the time honing in on my own area of mental health whilst still discussing ideas with my group. Overall, mapping has been a positive experience. It has enlightened me on mental health issues and my group’s collaborating skills have improved.
Working in pairs groups in the week 5 tutorial workshop, many maps were generated that not only showcased different aspects of the data security/online privacy issue but also looked at the issue in greater depth. Drawing on the maps created in earlier tutorials, these new issue maps were able to incorporate new pieces of information as well as tackle new problems that had arisen.
Task 1 – map A
The first map revisited work completed in an earlier tutorial when we mapped out the stakeholders for our overall topics e.g data stakeholders. This updated map however was much more specific and included the human and non-human actors in each sector as well as the beginnings of how these sectors relate to one another. We found that a lot of the stakeholders intertwined with each other and shared many of the same points or human/non-human actors. For example, personal users, hackers, and government agencies made use of the technologies available in the cloud and government agencies often worked alongside hackers to better the online lives of personal users.
Task 2 – map B
This polemics map discussed the controversies, debates and disagreements while incorporating the main stakeholders involved. The map highlighted the main actors/stakeholders, where the tensions occurred as well as the emotions and motivations of these main actors. Initially this mapping task appeared relatively simple, but once we began to break down the actors/stakeholders and find the relationships between each one the map became extremely busy. However, we were able to use this map to understand that in the real online world, the actors/stakeholders are always intertwining, merging and changing, so we understood that we were getting more informed on topic as a whole.
Task 3 – map C
This map was created in a group of four and used an actor template to categorise a chosen area of data privacy/online security. The information was categories into the following groups: causes, people, objects, emotions, behaviours, identity, laws/regulations, assistance, networks, representations, politics, emotional climate and barriers. Looking at the issue in this way we were able to really seperate the issue and focus on one small aspect at a time – thus, breaking down the issue further created space for an important academic conversation.
Task 4 – map D
The final map followed on from the information explored in map C above but focused on just one actor and mapped that actor against hierarchies, issues/challenges, capacities, associates, politics and value alignments. Choosing intelligence agencies as the main actor, we were able to put ourselves ‘in the mind of an intelligence agency’ as such and understand the purpose of this actor in the data security/online privacy world. Similar to map C, this brought up a new conversation and we discussed the purpose of intelligence agencies and the benefits they have on society.
Working in groups can often prove challenging (be it in the initial stages or throughout the process) but it is only in a group setting that the conversation can develop and ideas begin to be thrown around leading to relevant design ideas. As I had only been really focusing on my research idea alone, it was important to go ‘back to the drawing board’ and listen to the ideas of others. Each member in my group was also researching the same topic but the discussion came from very different perspectives, relative to each person’s individual research idea or area. In this scenario I found it critical to actively listen to each member and ask open ended questions to keep the conversation flowing.
On the surface, all the maps created in this class relate to my project as they all fit directly into the category of data surveillance and online privacy. Delving deeper into my refined idea of spam/scam emails and how users interact with these emails, there is still a relationship between the two but it is not as strongly defined as I would have liked. This is possibly due to the fact that the maps were created in a group setting; not everyone had the same research idea and therefore the conversation was not on one idea alone. The techniques and methods used to create these maps however, can be re-used again on my research idea to investigate the topic in greater depth.
By creating these maps the huge benefit in mapping ideas with the techniques used became clear. They create thought-provoking avenues of conversation within a group setting and by doing this, change can occur through any direction or topic discussed. The maps become the starting point as a regularmind map does and each map created becomes more and more detailed until design problems and solutions are highlighted and the research aspect of the design process can begin.
Rogers, R., Sánchez-Querubín, N. & Kil, A. 2015, Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe, OAPEN, Amsterdam.
To further our understanding of the issue of homelessness, in week five our collaborative group continued the mapping process with several brainstorming activities to inform each other of our findings. At this point, the brainstorming activities and mapping exercises allowed the group to view each others insights and perspectives into their research.
figure one: emotive words relating to the issue
Our first exercise consisted of listing any emotive words we thought contributed to the issue of homelessness. With over 200 word results we then wrote all the words onto paper, reading them aloud as we go in case of any repeated words. We laid them onto the tables and individually marked our initials with the words we thought stood out to us. I chose the following following words:
Following, we listed the words individually selected by each group member and mapped them besides the most powerful stakeholders and the least power stakeholders. At this point we realised that almost every word related to each of the listed stakeholders.
We then moved onto writing the antonyms for each word that was selected. All the original words had a negative connotation to our issue, but as soon as we wrote the antonyms it shed a different light onto the issue and emphasised the importance of creating a positive outlook in order to progress with change.
To add to our group discoveries, we further mapped the controversies surrounding homelessness and then listed the human and non human actors and stakeholders involved.
At the beginning of this process, I didn’t really think this issue was so complex. Like many others I thought it was as simple as it is shown online or in the media. After doing some further research into my issue I began to have a basic understanding of the problems the homeless community are facing on a daily basis. Similarly, the group mapping process proved to be very valuable as we all had similar yet different views on the issue. With further research, our group was able to understand, map and flesh out a deeper understanding into the issue efficiently.
Working as a group demonstrated beneficial as it enabled us to listen and respond to each other’s perspectives on the issue. We were able to map many insights as a group rather than the little we had as individuals. As a group I found it interesting how everyone mapped their ideas. Each group member was helpful with their input and created a mapping method that will assist me in the future to create design solutions. Their views were very important and allowed me to thoroughly add additional information on the issue I would like to pursue.
As a result of co-creating maps, it has enabled me to realise the different views, hidden perspectives/ assumptions that if I solely working by myself I could not see. It has also allowed me to experiment with different approaches to map additional information that I have collected. I have started to seek different methods that I may not have considered.
This map shows shows the actors affected by the issue of housing affordability. I have indicated relationships and links between stakeholders (both human and non-human) with dotted lines forming an expansive web. I was surprised by how large the web grew to be as the exercise revealed a lot of peripheral actors.
Flatmates.com.au is a Sydney based company that co-ordinates a safe and secure platform for people to list and find share accommodation. The ‘Sydney Rent Map’ by Flatmates.com.au (2015) uses the structure of the Sydney Trains rail map, to compare the average room prices of suburbs serviced by a train station. Given that cars are expensive to purchase and maintain, access to public transport is heavily linked to affordable housing. Sydney’s train network is a highly relevant structure to use given that it is the most efficient form of public transport for those commuting from Sydney’s fringes. This map is not a comprehensive representation of the average price of rooms in suburbs across all of Sydney. Although some are marked, most suburbs without a station are not represented. This leaves out regions such as the Northern Beaches, which are serviced by buses.
This image relates heavily to the ‘Drive till you qualify: an alternate view of housing affordability’ (Karuppannan, Kellett & Morrissey 2016) conference paper that I analysed as a scholarly resource. The paper challenges the common perception it is cheaper and more affordable for households on low incomes, to live further away from city centres in the outer suburbs. This paper used Adelaide as a case study to propose that this tactic was no longer valid in 2015. However, the data presented for share accommodation in the ‘Sydney Rental Map’, opposes the sentiments of the paper. The map shows that in 2015, suburbs further away from Sydney’s city centre are considerably cheaper than Sydney’s inner suburbs or suburbs in Sydney’s desirable coastal regions. For example, Minto in the far west has an average room price of $164, whereas Milson’s Point which overlooks the city harbour, has an average of $381 per room.
Karuppannan, S., Kellett, J. & Morrissey, J. 2016, ‘Drive till you qualify: an alternative view of housing affordability’, State of Australian Cities National Conference (SOAC 7) (09 Dec 2015 – 11 Dec 2015 : Gold Coast, QLD), Gold Coast, viewed 8 August 2016, <https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/98652>.
2: Up Again
Steve Greenberg is an award-winning editorial cartoonist based in Southern California. His work has been printed in some of America’s most prolific news publications such as the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune and the Washington Post (Greenberg n.d.). The cartoon ‘Housing Prices Up’ by Greenberg (2013), was created in response to the American housing market which reached significant lows in 2012. It shows however that by 2013 the housing prices in America were on the rise once again.
The image deals with the issue of rising housing prices, which is not unique to America – it is evident in Australia as affirmed by the articles I have previously analysed. For example, the article ‘What’s the key to home ownership for Gen Y?’ (James, Ong & Riley 2016) discusses the impacts of increasing property prices and the resulting lack of affordable housing in Australia. The aforementioned is preventing many members of Generation Y from bursting the housing bubble and buying their first home.
I was drawn to this image because of it’s creative exploration of the idea of the ‘housing bubble’. Whilst many other cliché images depict a house literally inside a bubble, this image utilises a contemporary reference to the 2009 blockbuster film ‘Up’ to evoke a sense of the unattainable and the notion of something being out of reach. The wording ‘UP AGAIN’ suggests that despite any setbacks, increasing property prices is a repetitive reality. The use of a contemporary reference makes this image more relevant and memorable for a younger audience, in particular members of Generation Y who face the struggles of entering the property market.
Daryl Cagle is one of America’s most notable editorial cartoonists, having worked in the industry for over 35 years (Cagle n.d.) and contributing to over 800 newspapers globally (Cagle 2006). ‘Housing Bubble’ is a highly satirical cartoon which deals with the topic of capital gain. Capital gain refers to the profit gained when a property is sold. Long-term homeowners and property investors in particular are the typical beneficiaries of capital gain. For example, many members of the Baby Boomer generation who bought their houses in the latter part of last century, have seen their houses that they may have bought in the hundreds-of-thousands price range, soar in value into the millions price range today. Even with inflation many Baby Boomers have undoubtedly reaped in wealth through capital gain.
This image is fascinating as it mocks the concerns of those who have the upper hand in the housing market. Exaggeration is employed to portray the couple in the cartoon as cynical and small-minded. It is almost as though the newspaper headline ‘Housing Bubble’ emphasises the disparity between the wealthy and low to moderate income earners. It makes me uneasy to think that whilst some people are without a roof over their head, there are others who are trapped inside the housing bubble complaining about petty and less substantial things.
In saying the above, I understand that this cartoon is single-sided and is most likely commenting on small percentage of home owners and property investors. A modest and fair investigation into the mindsets of those seeking capital gain should therefore be sought before making a concrete judgement on their character.
This is an advertisement for the Hills Hoist that was featured in a 1956 issue of The Australian Women’s Weekly. The vintage aesthetic recalls a time of prosperity, a time before built-in-obsolescence – when things were built to last. For decades the Hills Hoist has been an icon associated with the ‘Great Australian Dream’ of house ownership. It has long been the aspirations of many Australians, to own a detached house with a sprawling lawn, a barbeque, a hills hoist, a spacious kitchen and garage for their family car. In the advertisement, the Hills Hoist is featured in an idyllic and quintessential Australian backyard. I grew up in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s and some of my earliest memories are swinging around the Hills Hoist in my backyard in the middle of summer (before being told off by my parents). This advertisement is a representation of Australia sixty years ago and things have changed dramatically since then. As time passes, the hills hoist along with the ‘Great Australian Dream’ may become a fragment of the past. After all, having a hills hoist implies that one has a backyard. Given the housing crisis and push for high density living, many Australians are moving into smaller housing often without a garden. Without enough space for a Hills Hoist, they will have to resort to using a dryer or clothes horse.
Interestingly, the ‘Housing Issues Paper’ released by the City of Sydney (2016) has responded to the dwindling dreams of home ownership by calling upon the government to implement policy that makes long-term renting viable for those “…locked out of buying property.” Additionally, the City of Sydney has recommended that, “…apartment schemes with fewer facilities, such as car parking, en suite bathrooms, gyms and swimming pools, in the interests of affordability.” What’s clear is that Australian’s are at risk of losing more than just the joys of having a lawn and a Hills Hoist.
This image is supplied by Ray White Nowra on their website page ‘First Home Buyers Guide to Purchasing a Property’. It expresses the joy and relief that a young couple should look forward to, when they purchase their first home. This is an idyllic representation however and it does not address all the emotions and experiences throughout the lengthy process.
As Tanya Chapman (2015) writes on behalf of Ray White, “Owning your own home is the Great Australian Dream – however, it can also be a mystifying and confusing experience, involving many professionals and a seemingly arcane legal process.”
What this image fails to represent, is the financial stress and emotional insecurity that many first home buyers experience when trying to enter the property market at its current state. The increasing property prices and consequential lack of affordable housing has made the Great Australian Dream harder to attain for first home buyers, particularly 18-35 year olds (Generation Y). As expressed in the article ‘Crisis point for affordable housing’ (Murphy 2016), young Australians are finding it increasingly difficult to follow in their parents’ footsteps. Something as simple as wanting to buy a house in the suburb you grew up in, is not an easy reality for many.
This image shows a group of anti-foreign buyer protesters who turned up to an auction in Chatswood on Sydney’s north shore. They are shown waving the Australian flag and holding placards with discriminatory slogans that aggressively state their disapproval of foreign buyers, in particular Chinese buyers, residing in the area. The disgraceful signs read, ‘Stop Chinese residential ownership’, ‘Keep the Aussie dream alive’, ‘It’s a foreign invasion’ and ‘Foreign ownership is economic genocide’ (Anti-foreign buyer group disrupts auctions on Sydney’s lower north shore 2015). The group span the tree-lined suburban street, in a protective stance.
What isn’t represented in the image, but is addressed in a video recording, is the response of the local neighbours.
On their behalf Chris McNally states, “It’s racism on the streets that we don’t really want to be honest…It’s a bunch of guys with nothing to do on a Saturday but wave flags. Like go to a sport” (Domain 2015).
Other stakeholders not represented in this image, are the foreign buyers themselves. There is much controversy surrounding the prevalence of foreign buyers in the Australian property market. Some people feel they are buying Australian’s out of their future homes whilst others embrace the thought of multiculturalism. It is interesting to discover how the tension surrounding the issue is handled by some of the locals as this was not revealed in my initial textual research.
This is a representation of high density living in the commercial business district of Chatswood on Sydney’s north shore. It is evident through this image that there are a lot of high-rise buildings used for business and residential purposes. The more suburban, house-lined streets of Chatswood and its surrounding suburbs are not represented in this image. I selected this image because I have personal experience staying in Iglu Chatswood Student Accommodation (highlighted in the orange circle) and Meriton Serviced Apartments Chatswood (highlighted by the white circle). It is predicted that by 2030, Australia will have a lot more communal living arrangements and long-term single-person living options similar to current student housing (Devine 2016). Given this, I thought I would reflect on my high density living experiences.
In Iglu I had a dorm with a private bathroom but I shared a kitchen with three other people. The laundry facilities were shared with the entire building. It felt cramped at times however having less space to tidy was handy. At first I had a south-facing room where the lack of sunlight was a mood dampener. I definitely noticed the benefits of having morning sun flood through my window when I later swapped to a north-facing room. I experienced the difficulties of quarrelling room mates but also the joys of being part of a community. The most frustrating factor of communal dorm living was the sound pollution from the rooms on either side.
The Meriton apartment I stayed in, featured stunning views of Chatswood’s skyline. It had two bedrooms, two bathrooms, a kitchen, an internal laundry and a living space. The ability to cook and wash in privacy was much more convenient. Residents had private access to a gym, pool, spa and sauna. These luxuries made this option more expensive however as the latter mentioned were communal it was still affordable.
Devine, A. 2016, ‘Inside the house of 2030’, North Shore Times, 4 August, p. 53.
The future of Sydney’s Sirius building is causing much controversy, particularly amongst architects, the Government, public housing tenants and the wider public. The Sirius building has been described as an eye-sore and a “…tower made out of mismatched Lego blocks” (Chapter 1: The Sirius Building 2016). The point of contention is whether or not the building should be left as it is, renovated or demolished to make way for new developments.
The Brutalist building is in a prime location in The Rocks by Sydney Harbour and is sitting on land worth $100 million. Built in 1980 to provide public housing for those affected by gentrification, activists are pushing for the building to be preserved for its architectural and cultural worth.
As Shaun Carter, NSW Chapter President of the Australian Institute of Architects explains, “You need to leave these little dots, these little markers in your city so that you can look back and tell you story. And we think Sirius is one of those particular examples. We’re not asking for thousands of buildings to be saved, but one that’s so significantly sewn into our storyline and our architectural history” (Chapter 1: The Sirius Building 2016).
However, in 2014 the Government started evicting tenants to clear the land for sale to property developers. I selected this photo for its emotional impact. At night, the SOS sign which stands for ‘Save Our Sirius’ is visible. It’s one of the many cries of protest from its few remaining tenants. The community has dwindled. This image is thus a representation of desperation, resistance but most importantly community – the people in this building have a connection to the Sirius as their home.
Whilst the previous photo of the Sirius building shows it’s exterior, I felt it was just as important to show an interior view. This photograph shows Myra Demetriou inside her apartment, as a representative of the few remaining tenants of the Sirius. Bringing the viewer inside the walls of the Sirius and introducing them to Mrs Demetriou establishes a sympathetic human connection. It shows the viewer the realities of the frugal lifestyle of those who live in public housing. I felt that whilst there are many images of public housing exteriors, there are few publicised that are as touching and intimate as this. Mrs Demetriou wants to stay at the Sirius not for its multi-million dollar views as she is in fact legally blind, but because she has built her life around it. The Government is moving public housing further and further into the outer suburbs and for Demetriou access to her familiar health care services is at stake.
This is an image of the Lilyfield social housing redevelopment that was completed in 2011. The project oversaw the demolition of 40 dwellings and the construction of 88 new ones. “In the former development the high proportion of 3 bedroom units did not match the demand profile of the area, in which 1-2 person households predominate” (NSW Government n.d.). The redevelopment has thus proved to be a much more efficient use of space. The project has been awarded a 5-star Green star rating because of its high sustainability. Some of the sustainable highlights that also add to the development’s affordability are the use of solar energy and rainwater to reduce the costs of energy and water consumption. The indoor and outdoor bike storage racks promote residents to save money by limiting the use of cars and exercising more – there are in fact no car spaces onsite. They are also encouraged to use public transport which is readily accessible with a bus stop right across the road. There is even a community garden where tenants can grow their own fresh produce. This is a positive representation of a sustainable social housing development. Although tenants and their interaction with the site are absent, it appears to be a positive environment that fosters a sense of community and strong social interaction.
During the class, our group created the mapping for issue, which is related to obesity and healthy living. Also, we made stakeholders mapping; we divided into 2 sections for stakeholders like human and non-human. This exercise helped to build the knowledge about diverse issues are associated with our topic (obesity and healthy living). In later class, we wrote down the words are linked to our topic. We shared each group words, and checked what they were interested in the words. For our group words, the most interesting word was ‘Active design’, and then, ‘Healthcare professional’, ‘Public health’, ‘Environment’, and ‘Healthy lifestyle’, and so on. I realized most of words are related to my specific issue that is the association between active urban design and obesity. Therefore, if I keep looking at this issue and trying to make better ideas, it would be definitely interesting to many designers and design students. In addition, there are many interesting words from other groups what I could not come up with even few words describe my issue properly. Thus, it was useful exercise to get the point of what I have to go with my issue.
10 Image Archive
First image includes the guy who grabs his mobile cannot fall in sleep properly. This describes using smart phone for a long time brings about sleep disturbance. Nowadays, modern people often use social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, etc. They use their mobile to keep checking social media, and it is still happened before people go to bed. Deep sleep is necessary to good health; therefore, this image shows technology is also one of distractions to healthy living.
In post 1, I already have written about the issue, which is related to this image. This image aims to women have the confidence with their natural bodies. However, the article what I read in post 1 insists that ‘real’ from that slogan could be problem because there are no standard for normal and real body. Also, it highlights these kind of campaign might lead to negative effect on public’s lifestyle and eating behavior. Therefore, this image is controversial even the purpose is good.
Right diet is one of significant factor to healthy living. As you can see this image, today many young girls have wrong beauty standard, for example, skinny is prettier. They become being very self-conscious, and they cannot be satisfied with them. It causes eating disorder such as overeating or anorexia; and this image is one of example showing anorexia successfully.
The person eats the cookies with the different feelings in this poster. It shows people can overeat due to their feelings especially when their feelings are sad, tired, stressed, depressed, lonely, or anxiety. As you can the words in the cookies, all words represent negative feelings. The poster emphasises that people should stop overeating by bad feelings; they should find other appropriate solutions except overeating to make them feel better.
This image shows how soft drink has lots of sugar successfully. Therefore, it helps people being aware of it, and people can avoid drinking soft drink much. People are easy to addict sugar, so reducing sugar intake is really important thing to be healthy and avoid being obesity. This image is also used to support ‘sugar tax’ that I already mentioned in post 1; 20% tax on sugary drinks and sweets to help people reduce their daily sugar intake.
The potato is on the couch in this image. This points out an increase in sedentary lifestyle today. Many people prefer convenience; therefore, people tend to find easier ways when they travel, go or do something. They do not have enough physical activities, so it would bring about health risk such as heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, and high blood pressure. Although this image describes sedentary lifestyle, it will lead to awareness to people.
The silhouette of obese person is in front of many junk food shops. This illustration highlights urbanism as a public health issue, and it also says that urban environment should change for public health. I posted the design guidelines about this issue in post 4. This image shows the real environment that affects public health negatively. If there are less unhealthy food shops in our environment, it will definitely helpful to public health. However, there would be many objections by especially junk food and sugary food industry.
This image is a documentary poster. It includes the fries in the cigarette packet. People recognize how smoking cigarettes is harmful for the health. The image uses that common sense to let people realize how junk food is also as bad for our health as smoking.
This image is United Way + American Heart Association joint campaign poster. The poster has gun shape of the chocolate with the texts below it. It points out children obesity can be prevented by parent’s right diet education. The visual aspect and the phrase are appropriate to describe how right diet is important to children.
This image is a campaign poster to raise awareness of obesity. This poster might be sensational, but it will make people to think that obesity affects their health negatively. Thus, people try to choose healthier choices, not unhealthy things.
When understanding and discovering any complex system the system can only be appreciated when attempting to map the stakeholders involved. It is only then that you can see the intricate web of players, their values and relationships and how they make up a larger system and influence each other. Stakeholder mapping alongside a collection of visual research has allowed me to appreciate these systems, their intricacies and portrayals through a visual format apposed to the written texts I have previously discovered.
When asked to produce a stakeholder map in class on the topic of Obesity and Healthy Living it was quite daunting task. The system and stakeholders form such a complex web and we worried that we wouldn’t be able to cover every actor and relationship within the time and space constraints.In the end we were very happy with the map we produced, whilst not clear it is well thought out and conveys a basic overview of the stakeholder involved in the issue.
We were later asked to map stakeholders based on their values and relationships. This provided much more challenging as we really had to put ourselves in the shoes of each stakeholder and discuss their position in the grand scheme of things.
The two stakeholder maps we created in class was based on the overarching issue of ‘Obesity and Healthy Living’. As my research has led me into the quite specific topic of Type 1 Diabetes I wanted to take these two maps on relationships and values to create a more specific map of the topic, breaking this down into human and non-human players.
When creating an image bank to reflect all that I have been researching and discussing I have really tried to find images that either depict some reality of living with Diabetes or allow me to challenge societal assumptions. Many of the images I’ve found cleverly reflect the treatment of Diabetes through the use of needles and other harsh means. It’s very easy to hide the treatment of Diabetes so I think that imagery and artworks are a great way for people to express their frustration and the more hidden aspects of the disease.
Despite the freedom of visuals to communicate I did find it difficulat to find any images that conveyed the overall experiene of what it is like to live with Type 1 Diabetes. I put this down to the silent nature of the disease in that people living with it look perfectly healthy and normal. Unlike Type 1, Type 2 is a bit easier to stereotype as seen in image 4, where those suffering are predominantly overweight. Due to this, I struggled to find imagery that could really reflect the experience of living with Type 1 Diabetes and not just a treatment or small aspect of it.
I feel these images reflect many of the issues I’ve previously talked about around the subject of Type 1 Diabetes however do so in a more lighthearted way than my textual sources have. It is amazing what can be communicated through an image and I feel a lot is said through the particular images I’ve chosen.
Image 1: Swiss-abetic Pen & Ink by Birdwing Press
Image 2: Jellybeans In a Jar by J. Tyler
Image 3: Complication of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from A Fair Go
Image 4: Diabetes Sucks by Noah Health
Image 5: Newcastle Walk to Cure Diabetes by R Osland
Image 6: Icecream Cones by The Taable
Image 7: Diabetes Art Day by M. Mokate
Image 8: Campaign Image by #NoPricks
Image 9: Diabetic Fingertips found on Google Image Search
Image 10: Diabetic Thirst by E. Loli
A Fair Go, 2014, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 – Complications, viewed 20th of August <2016, http://afairgo.net/diabetes-mellitus-type-one-complications/>
Homelessness is both complex and perplexing, evident in my attempts to map the issue. Unless framing the issue from a particular perspective, it is difficult to grasp just how many actors are involved in the issue. There are a number of different people and groups that are both affected by homelessness and that can affect homelessness and all of them seem to be intertwined with each other. Before completing this mapping exercise, I knew that homelessness was a complex issue with a number of contributing factors, however, I never quite understood just how many stakeholders were involved. Below I have started to map out the issue. First I began by breaking the stake holders down into human and non human and I was surprised to find that there were more non human stakeholders than human.
In the stage 2 map below, I have taken the information from above and tried to categorise it and organise the stakeholders into groups which share the same values, or fall into a similar area of the issue.
In the stage 3 map, I have attempted at mapping the power of each stakeholder to work out who I would consider the most and least powerful when it comes to tackling the issue of homelessness. In this map I have simplified the stakeholders into the groups I would consider the key stakeholders.
An Image Archive of Homelessness
Could you please help?
We are all guilty of walking straight past a homeless person without so much as a look in their direction. This photograph forces us to pause for a moment and really see them. It is a clear depiction of the invisibility of the homeless and represents the often unnoticed loneliness and suffering they experience. Each day, thousands of people pass by them, distracted by their own lives. While this photograph does not represent the complexity of the issue, it serves as a stark reminder of their suffering. It highlights how society has become desensitised to the plight of the homeless. Although not represented in the photograph, it forces the viewer to question how thousands of people can walk by without helping this man. It raises the issue of stigma and the barriers that stigma and stereotyping are creating in our ability to help those in need. Research into this topic has delved into the issues faced by the homeless, such as lack of access to technology, as well as food insecurity. However this photograph emphasises their plight without delving into any great detail. Why is it that we are more moved by a photograph such as this, than we are seeing the homeless on the street during our daily lives?
The Hidden & Invisible
This sleeping glass figure is a UK based art project that aims to raise awareness of both the invisibility of the homeless as well as the growing number of hidden homeless. The issue of the hidden homeless was something that was touched on in a number of articles that I have read. There are many homeless youth couch surfing or staying with friends or living out of their car. Youth that may not be sleeping rough on the streets but who still do not have a safe and secure place to call home. This art piece draws our attention to those we see on the streets yet take no notice of.. Yet also has a double meaning, representing those we do not see, that sleep on the couches of friends and in the boots of their cars.
Acknowledged was a free exhibition held in 2013 at the State Library in Sydney. It consisted of the many faces of the homeless population, and included both their name and moving story, taking them out of a homeless context and painting them in a new light. The exhibition aims to raise their self esteem, photographing them in a way that changes their perception of themselves as well as the publics perception of them. This photograph focuses on the people at the centre of the issue, it differs from the sources I have read as it starts at a fundamental level, however, it is also very similar as it aims to break down the stigma that surrounds the homeless.
Who? Where? Why? Homelessness in Sydney
This image is an info graphic that outlines the how’s and why’s of homelessness in Sydney. It states that 516 rough sleepers were surveyed, of which, 82% were male, 17% were female and 1% were transgender. I have not come across statistics like these in my research so far, and I am curious to look into why there is such an imbalance in the sexes. Another interesting fact is the amount of time these people have been homeless, with the average being 5 years and 4 months. When I see a homeless person on the street, I have surprisingly never stopped to think how long they might have been there. Reasons behind their homelessness include; emotional, physical and sexual trauma, mental health issues, substance abuse or a combination of these issues. In terms of income, 100% of them live on less than $400 per week and 13% have no income to speak of.
Do Something for Nothing
This image shows a compassionate approach to the issue. Without prying into their lives or backstories and without truely understanding the nature of their circumstances, this barber helps the homeless to feel better about themselves. It is a simple yet effective approach to the issue and the beginning of the ‘Do something for nothing’ movement. This representation differs from those I have read in text sources as it seems free from bias or agenda and is rather, a genuine act of kindness.
Opposite ends of the Wealth Spectrum
Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has been photographed here with a Melbourne based homeless man. The image depicts the two opposite ends of the wealth spectrum, with Turnbull in an expensive suit and shiny shoes crouching down, why Kent is sitting on the pavement in a tracksuit with a McDonalds coffee and unkept hair.
You’ve Crossed Paths with Homelessness
This photograph merges homelessness and technology, exposing the issue through an iphone and a dating app. The dating app Happn is a location based app that notifies you when you have crossed paths with someone who also has the app installed. However, the happn team have now enabled the homeless to share their stories through the platform. When a user passes a homeless person, the app notifies them of their story. It is another example of how people are attempting to break down the barriers between the homeless and the wider public, ridding them of stigma and allowing us all to help those in need.
Youth Homelessness Matters
This Youth Homelessness poster focuses on the statistics surrounding homeless youth in Australia. It states that 42% of the homeless population in Australia are under the age of 25 with 26,000 falling into the 12-25 age bracket. Family violence, child abuse or family breakdown account for the causes of homelessness in 70% of homeless youth and couch surfing is generally the first stage of homelessness experienced by youth. When compared to text sources, this poster is very general, and focuses on a particular group affected by the issue. It is more of a general overview of the situation and aims to raise awareness of the situation without delving too far into it.
Mapping Jasmine’s Journey
This image is a visual map of a young girls journey into homelessness. It highlights how easily youth can find themselves homeless and counteracts the misconceptions that the wider public may hold around the circumstances of these peoples lives. Homelessness can happen to anyone and all it takes is a number of unfortunate events and lack of support and you could find yourself homeless.
The Couch Project
Homelessness is framed in this photograph from a different angle than many textual sources I have read. Without the text overlaid, the viewer may not even recognise this as an image of homelessness. It challenges our pre conceived ideas on the issue as the girl featured in this image does not fit within the stereotype that has become evident through my research. She has a roof over her head, clothing and what we may assume as a safe place to sleep. Yet, she is part of the the youth homelessness statistics included in the fact sheet above.
After an initial brainstorm session and then in-depth research surrounding data surveillance and online privacy, it can be seen that the main stakeholders appear to be government agencies, personal users, online/cloud, social media users, businesses, hackers and law enforcement groups.
Although there is a much larger audience for such a topic, these stakeholders appear to cover the main groups and provide an overview of the data privacy/surveillance topic. By mapping these stakeholders, it becomes easier to gain an understanding of the topic as a whole with each stakeholder critically influences the next, especially the ‘hackers’, who definitely hold the strongest ties to each group mapped below.
The following ten images relate to or represent an aspect of data surveillance and/or online privacy in some way or another. Through researching and archiving these images a different aspect of the topic is showcased which leads to a much more in-depth knowledge of the issue overall.
A political cartoon, this image portrays two government officials (or so they seem by their formal work attire) ‘stealing’ both online and paper form documents as well as wire-tapping calls without cause. Many law enforcement and government agencies monitor public and personal online activity without informing the individual user and without any real reason to do so in the hope they find something of any importance – a clear invasion of privacy. Current news articles do explore this issue but without blatantly placing blame on any party and always ensuring there is a reason behind the online surveillance search, whereas this cartoon displays the opposite.
This image was sourced from a personal email account in the junk mail folder. Clearly a scam email, the content explains how to receive ‘earnings of $498,651 per month’ by clicking on certain links to complete online surveys. This email is the most detailed representation of a scam email as it includes all the warning signs that many newspaper or journal articles explore; multiple links, details about large sums of money, rhetorical questions, words such as ‘fake’, ‘profits’, ‘scams’, ‘millionaire’. Even at first glance this email appears extremely fraudulent; the sender ‘Become a Millionaire’ and the subject line alone ‘no lies, no scams’ are enough to determine this.
This image is possible one of the first images to appear on a Google search of ‘online privacy’ or ‘data surveillance’ and therefore is the most stereotypically common thing to think of when imagining these topics. However, nothing about this image directly relates to data privacy. The hooded figure, supposedly a hacker, appears behind lines of ‘code’, which is actually binary numbers mixed with the word ‘password’ in red. The purpose of the image is to create an aura of fear with password protection. Although this image is not a reliable source at all in terms of data surveillance or online privacy, it does provide a commercial or public overview of the topics as something to be feared which hopefully leads to people being more cautious online.
This cartoon uses modern day technology ‘necessities’ to show that the more devices one owns, the less privacy you have. These days it is almost a form of high status or class to be in ownership of the latest technological device.The man in the cartoon appears to be so involved in obtaining this high status that he is very ironically unaware of his surroundings, more specifically the ‘data mining’ headline on the newsstand. Devices such as smartphones, smartwatches and Google Glass, as pictured in the cartoon, do have their personal benefits (allowing the user to work better, organise their life, keep in touch with friends and family, etc). But in terms of privacy and data surveillance it is quite easy to say that people who own these items have very little (if any) online privacy.
This cartoon uses the age-old children’s tale of Goldilocks and the Three Bears to represent online privacy in a more relatable fashion and in a very modern context. In this cartoon, ‘Goldilocks’ has trawled through the bears’ computers terminating their online privacy, rather than making use of their bed, porridge or chairs as is told in the original story. ‘Goldilocks’ in this cartoon could be pinned as government officials, law enforcement agencies or hackers but this is left to the viewers’ own imagination.
An almost direct play on Shepard Fairey’s 2008 ‘HOPE’ poster designed for Barack Obama’s presidential campaign, this image almost reverses the positive influences of Obama and makes very public claims of the governments’ relentless and unnecessary wiretapping. As the original image was so iconic and well-known, this poster becomes incredibly eye-catching and therefore is a much stronger and instant representation of a somewhat corrupt government than is portrayed in news articles.
This cartoon focuses on online privacy in a social media sense. Using the iconic ‘Facebook’ webpage, the image portrays a regular user on the website but in a fish bowl. The purpose of the fishbowl is to represent the fact that there is no privacy when it comes to social media, much like there is no privacy for a fish in a glass fish bowl; every move is being watched and monitored. The views presented in this image do not differ much from what is being represented in current news articles but in an image form, the moral or message becomes a lot clearer in this visual form as shown above.
This vector image of a shadowed hand reaching for a credit card through a tablet represents the increasingly common issue of online fraud. Those who shop online or who willingly add their bank details online are at risk of online fraud as many do not take the required precautions to ensure their privacy, and even those that do are still not safe as hackers are almost always smarter than the system in place to stop them. Although in a vector format which usually takes away a lot of emotion, the image is still powerful and therefore is a better representation of this online fraud than a text article. This is because looking at an image to gain information over an article is often a much quicker process.
This photograph, similar to image three is a very visual representation of a hackers’ world. Much more reliable than image three, this image portrays what can be assumed as an FBI employee trawling through the online world through multiple screens and devices. The image as a whole has a very threatening appeal and therefore does differ from a lot of current news or text articles available on the topic of online privacy and data surveillance. Often articles fail to bring across the element of fear when the content requires it but in an image form it becomes easier.
This mind map of global warming covers the human (stakeholders) and non-human (environment) aspects.
I include these images mainly on scientific and statistical data since they can help us to visually grasp the trends, disparity, and hence impacts of global warming and climate change on our environment and economy.
Image 1: Global abatement cost curve beyond business-as-usual – 2030 (Dauncey G., 2009, The Climate Challenge: 101 Solutions to Global Warming, New Society Publishers, Leicester, p.71)
This image compares relative abatement costs of different mitigation measures, which is useful to understand the financial impact when considering various mitigation options for reducing carbon emissions.
This image compiled by Climate Research Unit of University of East Anglia and Hadley Centre of UK Meteorological Office records global temperature change from 1900 to 2000 as around 0.57 degree Celsius.
This image shows the sharply rising trends of global fossil carbon emissions after 1950 due to fossil fuel burning. Cement production releases carbon dioxide resulting from thermal decomposition of limestone to lime.
This image shows the comparative rise in annual carbon emissions by regions, data source from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre. China acknowledged in 2010 it was the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases, surpassing USA who is the top emitter of the world in 20th century. Carbon emissions is proportional to a region’s wealth and hence its energy consumption.
This image shows predicted distribution of temperature change from Hadley Centre HadCM3 climate model, and plotted colors depict average change is 3oC, with predicted change of 1.4 to 5.8oC from 1990 to 2100. Continents warm more rapidly than oceans (due to lower heat capacity of landat ) in the model. The lowest predicted warming is 0.55oC south of South America and the highest is 9.2oC in Arctic Ocean, indicating largest carbon emitters located in northern hemisphere.
This image shows the comparison of fossil fuel consumption per capita for the top 20 largest populated countries. Large range indicates disparity between the rich, industrialized and poor/developing countries. Australia’s fossil fuel usage per capita can be very high but not on the list due to its small population.
This image shows how efficiently the 20 largest economies convert fossil fuel usage into wealth (tied to availability of fossil fuel energy sources) in terms of the ratio of gross domestic product generated to number of kg fossil fuel carbon released. France and Brazil ranked top two because they heavily rely on alternative energy source, hydroelectric and nuclear power while other countries rely on coal as energy source.
Image 9: Global Trends in Greenhouse Gases (Verheggen, B., 2012, “Global Trends in Greenhouse Gases”, Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change, 2nd Ed, SAGE Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, California, Vol. 3, p.1549)
These images illustrate the trends in major greenhouse gas concentrations from 1970 to 2010. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide show continuous rise that they account for 99% of global warming potential in the past 50 years. CFC-11 & 12 show gradually drop after Montreal Protocol that limited their release to protect ozone layer.
This image shows the survey carried out by CSIRO – Australian Attitudes to Climate Change 2010 – 2014 regarding the thoughts of the Australians about the causes of climate changes. 46% respondents indicated that climate change is largely caused by humans while a substantial percentage believed that it is just a natural fluctuation. Surprisingly, this indicates most Australians (54%) disagree with IPCC experts and do not believe climate change is dominant by human activities. Full survey report of CSIRO can be seen at: https://publications.csiro.au/rpr/download?pid=csiro:EP158008&dsid=DS2.
I started to attempt to navigate the issue of homelessness by mapping out the actors in this issue, with a focus on what causes people to transition into homelessness, what helps them to transition out of homelessness, and what prevents them from moving back to permanent housing.
Maps of the participants/stakeholders (human and non-human)
In week 3, we tried to develop some words with mental health that base on stakeholders (human and non-human). It helps me to understand further about what kind of stakeholders connect with mental health and how to affect each other. Firstly, we collect the words that we found and develop a map that depends on which key element that mostly affect mental health issue, and then connect the rest of words to develop a sequence. However, the first map we developed and we found it technology is mostly affect mental issue because speaking of technology, it can include social media, and then extend to internet and media reporter. Finally, most of relevant elements will discover, include policies, funding, population and so on.
This is the map that bases on the broad element and then extends to another element with more details. During the map, we found that the core elements to affect mental health issue include Geography, Environment, Work Place, Government, Practitioners, Technology and Science. Especially workplace reflect lots of perspectives, includes education, communication, and behavior. These elements can reflect mental illness straightly. However, external factors can extend to most of areas that relate to mental health.
This time, I try to focus on human factors and found that most of elements will extend to relationship and organization like family, reporters and teachers and so on. It means profession can be the agency to convey the information about mental health. Also, profession is the chain between organization and mental health as well.
The photograph is from the article ‘Approval Addiction – Part 2 … How does it steal away your health?’. It represents the outside of addiction is always looks happy as the mask while inside of addiction is painful as the face. The photography develop a specific visual metaphor to describe addiction can damage both physical health and mental health at the same time, and it can reflect on your painful emotions as the manifesto of mental illness, which is ‘pain’.
This is a shadow of human portrait that combined by pieces of notes, and the contents are about the thoughts of mental disorders, which are all negative comments. The portrait develop a very strong visual metaphor to cover the information inside of people when they have mental illness, and every comment has different font with different size to display, especially liar, it can describe metaphorically that they are helpless and lost by mental disorders.
The blackboard design that tells a girl has lots of emotions want to express but only came out with ‘fine’ when people asking her ‘How are you?’. The visual metaphor really engaging to mental disorders by displaying the negative emotions around the girl while put the ‘fine’ in front of her face and cover her expression, which creates a very strong connection between the expression of the girl and the words that describe mental illness effectively.
This is one of photograph series of ‘Quotes on Mental Illness Stigma’. It uses sandglass and put it on the neck of the character that looks hopeless and helpless. Generally speaking, sandglass represents lapse of time. On the other hand, the sandglass is locking the person’s action and she can not do anything with it. It describes a visual metaphor about the feeling of anxiety and depression, also it shows people with mental illness need to help because they might get stuck.
The photograph shows the person is spitting the words and characters about comments or requirements. These words and characters usually make people depress and worry because of excessive expectation, jealous and external factors. It is very smart idea to combine spitting with words, because people usually feel painful when they spitting, which is engaging the feeling of mental illness.
The character of this photograph is considering what kind of face she should wear before go out, even she’s not happy. The faces show on the table are all positive emotions to cover her depression, which is a great idea to engage the face of mental illness effectively while describing the phenomenon of society that people suffer their situation of being anxiety and fear to seek help.
The photograph called ‘Property of Society’. It uses a barcode to seal the character’s mouth that expresses shut up is the property because it can make the society peaceful and harmonious by no negative comments. It’s a counter example with a strong visual metaphor to express the feeling of depression because of no way to express how they feel, which can tell by the eye contact of the character on the photograph.
This is the photograph from the serious of ‘Quote on mental health’. It shows the men trying to paint himself to be colourful because he has no colour. Obviously, the colour represents hope as display it on the photograph, it describe metaphorically about the quote ‘Not every disability is visible’, which is suitable for mental illness as well because anxiety and depression are invisible.
The photograph shows the mask can change to different faces with different emotions except for the emotion of the person that wearing the mask because it’s hiding under the mask. It develops a strong visual metaphor about human always consider to hiding their negative side while pretending they are fine as the mask. On the other hand, they don’t know the mask is creepy as mental illness.
This is a very simple figure and ground drawing to describe the thoughts inside of the people while they said ‘fine’ from the mouth to outside of the world. It expresses the situation of people with mental illness that they’re fear to show their actual feeling and seek help, and that’s they are always doing something opposite of their mind as the person from the photograph did.
These are the stakeholder maps we develop in our group. In terms of the mindmap section, we still working on online privacy and data security issue, the maps help us clean up all the possible stakeholders we can look at in the next few stages, as well as the value share between some of the stakeholders.
For users (no matter public or private) they have the same position feel scared and against hackers
For some technology companies and the government they are one the same boat for business and management
Users and Government/Business are opposite; they don’t want share their personal information
The Search Giant
This illustration is called “The Search Giant”. Julie Fisher came out this illustration that information can be tracked and people can be found through the internet. When you look at the image, it makes you feel creepy and paranoid, as well as present the idea and connecting the man to being followed on the internet. The idea of the spider comes from the ideas of internet, which already very popular in everyone’s life.
On the other hand, you can become stuck in the world wide web, the predatory nature of some giant corporations, can be perceived as an ominous presence, the fact that they are useful but potentially dangerous as a spider in the center of a web knows exactly where the ‘flies’ are – alluding to a notion of being tracked and finally spiders don’t blink and have many eyes in which the word google is reflected.
The image reflected the serious problem on how information online are easily accessible and controllable involved personal and business. In my pervious research, I have shown few articles that can confirm online privacy and data security already too common to exist in current society.
2.Lies, damned lies, and statistics.
“Lies, damned lies, and statistics.” — Mark Twain
Why you should lie as much as possible on your Facebook profile? We all know the purpose is prevent the identity thief online. This image is created by Vincent Mahé and used in Adam Levin’s article “ Scared of identity theft? Tell lies on Facebook.”
In this image, the man is Selfie at home with the family plant, cool drink and the naked upper body. He is trying to show others he was enjoying his holiday outside, obviously he lied.
Had Facebook existed then, people’s rights (ie. identity privacy information) have been violated. So people like to puff up their egos on social-networking sites to protect their own information, they believe this is the most expedient way. People lie on Facebook to not only make themselves look good, but to feel better about themselves. A 2014 study found that a fifth of young Facebook users admitted to lying on the site about things such as relationship status and job promotions.
This is a powerful data to explain how people feel with online privacy.
This illustration is from the same illustrator I had before – Julie Fisher. She looked into the issues surrounding the development of new technologies and their effects on social life and generation divides. This piece called “EyePhone”, which be named with the homophonic word of “iphone”.
The inspiration of this illustration is come from the radio news. The radio has told “Iphones+Ipad’s that track your location and updates when synced to a computer.”
Besides, she has done some research and the basic problem is if someone steals your mobile they could find out exactly where you have been using a simple computer program. This will put you in danger such as stalking, blackmail and jealous spouses following you. As you can feel the technology and current situation are a bit fearful which is shown through the graphics (ie. arrow, eyes in mobile, colour and hands) out the places where the man has walked.
I’ve watched a video before which is shown “how wifi tracking a smartphone can be used by retailers to covertly learn about their visitors,” but this illustration looks more effective.
4. lPRISM surveillance
Digital privacy, Internet surveillance and the prism-enemies of the Internet are presented in this image. In this image the man is afraid of all the technology devices he own. He try to close the door to avoid internet surveillance. These huge eyes are staring at his life and his actions. Online surveillance is a growing danger for journalists, bloggers, citizen-journalists and human rights defenders.
On the other hand, the text in the images: “ you can trust government” made the man more afraid. In the article, which the image belong to has pointed out that lPRISM surveillance scandal has consumed the Internet as the implications of massive scale U.S.
The most serious situation is the NSA got direct access Google, Facebook, Apple, Yahoo and Microsoft servers which allowed it to harvest internet usage details of millions of unsuspecting American citizens. All public knows about it, and they are outraged like what shows in the image.
5. Delete cookies?
Same with the image, many people think if they clear their cookies and browsing history and delete their history will protect their identification data, however there are still have many technologies that allow companies to identify you even after doing that.
Some big companies are dedicated to collect as much data as possible on users which they later sell. Even the information you think not important to you, they will collected to analysis your other personal information.
On the other hand, I also mentioned in my research before, many companies are losing credibility which caused by their own attitude for online privacy.
Therefore,tracking is all over the place and very hard to stay far away.
6. The cloud
The image “The Cloud” has communicated the idea behind is showing a potential conflict in power and privacy. Perhaps it is easier for him to connect to his work than his children. In this image a man is on holiday in north east England with his children, but he is caught up in the cloud and his work in London which takes a greater precedence in his life.
As soon as he is on the internet, no matter his location, he’s location is at his office. Different with before, in this piece, if his location been tracking, will help him hide his current location and left more time with his family.
That’s what technology do sometimes with good effect.
7. Ads with Eyes
This illustration is called “Ads with Eyes”. The illustrator has been reading about computers that can scan your face when you walk into a building or shopping centre and analyze your information such as your age, your mood and then (although this is in development) deduce what kind of advert would be best suited to your tastes and thus be more effective as a campaign. As you can see, the tech is trying to analysis the man: he is herather harried, stressed and the camera suggested him to the coffee shop. This is similar with one of the video I have watched on vimeo is shown “how wifi tracking a smartphone can be used by retailers to covertly learn about their visitors,” when you shopping in the shopping centre, they know where you have been.
8. a new balancing of privacy
The image is created by Thomas Leuthard, it been published in the article “The Wearable Revolution: Drawing the Line Between Exciting New Tech and Privacy”. The huge face are watching people’s action and where are they going.
The author of the article aims to find the great deal of discourse about balancing tech revolutions and personal rights and boundaries. According to that, the perspectives are listed on three different sections:
Start with the issue of Google Glass and similar wearables has raised serious privacy concerns among consumers and business owners.
Introduced eyewear cameras.
Balancing innovation and invasion: Wherever people land on issues about privacy, it is exciting to be surrounded by so many innovative devices and watch how they are transforming the world.
We can’t live without technology. The idea of “ wearable technology is represented a new balancing of privacy issue and new tech.
9. The things you revealing online is much more than you think
This illustration shows the meaning of “The things you revealing online is much more than you think.” The inspiration of the image is from a TED video talk. When you working online, how little you know? and how much others know.
Also they have discussed what the web knows about you, and what we can do about the things we’d rather it forgot. If go back to my pervious blog post, I have discussed people’s attitude on online privacy. Business and people not pay attention to data protection led to Privacy disclosure: correct business operations and data protection method.
10. Clues in the Cloud
This artwork is from “Clues in the Cloud” — a multi-media art piece that combines visual illustrations, audio recordings and poetic prose. They have seven sections to explores a different aspect of privacy in the digital age. It has stated that the benefits of technology are not always clear, so the studio use illustrations to explain “what is privacy and how does it affect our lives?”
In this image, a female nude is exposed public with a huge number of eyes as the background. When we are texting all the powers that may be are surveilling our action at day and night.
Because of most of people cannot stop data surveillance, the girl in the image is praying privacy could be here to stay.
By creating a stakeholder map the idea that literally every single person being intertwined complexly in the issue became more and more true. I think the most valuable standpoint the stakeholder map reinforces is that in order to see true change for gender equality we must fundamentally change societies values and way of thinking. We need to stop perceiving gender equality as a “women’s issue” and start seeing it as everyone’s issue. The impacts of a gender equal society effect people of all genders, and all institutions and human constructs and until all of these people included can see the benefits we will still live in an unequal society.
This is the World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Forum (World Economic Forum 2014) which gives some insight as to where the world is at.
This set of advertisements by Terre Des Femmes has a strong message about the perceptions of clothing and sexuality. The slogan of the posters, “don’t measure a woman’s worth by her clothes,”(Wlokka & Regeheim 2015) aids in the understanding that society puts perceptions on a woman’s sexuality based on what she wears. The scale filled with derogatory terms emphasizes the way in which society judges women, no matter what they wear, and finds a way to link this to women’s sexuality. This outline of perceptions creates the understanding that it isn’t the fashion that needs to be altered, but societies understanding and perception of women that has to be changed.
IMAGE 2 (Who Needs Feminism n.d.)
The Who Needs Feminism? campaign is about people posting an image explaining why they need feminism. It started to overturn the perception of feminists as “man-hating, bra-burning, whiny liberal[s],” (Who Needs Feminism n.d.) and aim to promote the importance of feminism to everyone within society. I chose this particular entrant because I think in terms of feminism and gender equality, it is often seen as a women’s issue and the implications of males (or non-gendered people) are often overlooked or unspoken about. I think the term “MAN UP” really encapsulates the gendered pressures of society that men face and the expectations that are placed upon them.
IMAGE 3 (UNWomen 2014)
This image by UNWomen featuring Emma Watson was created for the HeForShe campaign. I found this image particularly powerful through the capture of the true essence of femininity and masculinity. Society has constructed a belief that women are sensitive, and men are strong and this is what segregates us and provides gender roles. The emotion captured in Emma’s eyes shows strength and sensitivity at the same time and the repeated phrase; “both men and women should feel free to be sensitive/strong,” brings to light that gender doesn’t alter the way we do or should feel about ourselves and about situations. These gendered stereotypes create boundaries for both men and women restricting them from being their true selves and accepting all ends of the emotional spectrum.
IMAGE 4 (UNWomen 2013)
This set of images comes from a campaign by UNWomen which used google’s text prediction to highlight people’s understanding of women and the way in which they are perceived. The placement of the search box over the mouth of these women is metaphorical for the way in which their voices are taken away and these sexist perceptions prevail. The following statements below the search bar, including; “women need to be seen as equal,” accentuate the shift that needs to be made in society for equality to be reached. It points out the flaws of the way gender stereotypes force us into having certain perceptions based on genders and how they are unjust and unfair.
IMAGE 5 (Unknown n/a)
Although this image isn’t very visually provocative, what’s really nice about it is that it explains how it is okay to change your perception or way of thinking about something. By crossing out particular genders and their particular roles and explaining what we should all do collectively as humans, “it is a person’s job to respect another person.” Through editing old values to put hope forward for new ones, it provides people with an understanding of how they should treat people and suggests a way of viewing people of different genders.
IMAGE 6 (Unknown 2013)
I think this image is really powerful in that it explains through the text how gender can completely change perception, and that gender stereotypes interplay more than we may realize. These stereotypes that we place upon gender are basically jumping to conclusions without knowing any details. The subjects of the Baby X study weren’t able to speak to the baby or see the image it was reacting to, however “literally identical behavior could be constructed differently based on the perceived gender of the subject.” (Unknown 2013) The combination of this image and text explains how we place a stereotype on people before they have even developed or are able to express how they feel. In order to achieve gender equality and shift societal values so that men, women and other gendered people feel comfortable and valued in society, we must stop placing generalizations on people, particularly children – who haven’t learnt who they are or want to be.
IMAGE 7 (Unknown n.d.)
This image has a pretty similar standpoint to images 2, 3, and 6 in that it shows that this issue concerns everyone and that it is purely a way of thinking, not segregation based upon fact. It isn’t that associating with masculinity or femininity is a negative thing – it is that your gender shouldn’t discern which one you associate with or if you associate with either. There should be equal avenues for both sexes and neither should feel like their gender has an impact on the decisions they make.
IMAGE 8 (Withnall 2014)
This image has a similar standpoint to image 6 in that it values teaching children not to fall into these stereotypes and to do what they want to do. The things children learn at a young age set a foundation for their perspective on the world and the decisions they make as to the person they want to be. Considering this letter was said to be put out in the 1970s it was a pretty forward way of thinking and promotes letting children choose for themselves “whatever appeals to them.” There is a lot going around the media currently about the impact of gendered toys and how this gendering is shaping young people’s understanding of gender from a very young age, limiting them from exploring what they truly enjoy if it is classified as the opposite gender’s ‘thing’.
IMAGE 9 (Always 2016)
This image is a part of the #LikeAGirl campaign which is challenging the way in which feminine qualities are used to put down men and is a highly-offensive insult – e.g. ‘don’t throw like a girl.’ The text questioning what is meant by this derogatory term, alongside a small girl with both a powerful stature and glance emphasizes the unjust nature of the phrase and the second-hand sexism implied in the statement. It is trying to overthrow this common way of thinking that ‘girls are weak’ and reinforce that women are capable of anything if they believe in themselves and are supported. Being a girl should not be a disadvantage in terms of sport, or anything else for that matter.
IMAGE 10 (look_at_this_pusssy 2016)
This image and statement was posted on the instagram look_at_this_pusssy which is a feminist instagram which posts images of everyday things which resemble the female genitalia often alongside a statement about female oppression or gender equality. This one particularly stood out to me because the image represents the combination genitalia in resemblance alluding to both sexes importance in building the human race. The statement explains that feminists aren’t arguing against men or saying that their issues are less important. Feminists are looking to bring to light the way in which women have often received the short straw. It promotes egalitarian values and that people should be in all senses equally… basically that people should “simply act like A Fucking Human.”