{post 8} the process of arriving at a design response.

collaborative process. design response possibilities. draft proposal. judith tan.

(Flatau 2016)

We came together as a group to brainstorm possibilities for design responses to our focuses for the issue of homelessness. My objective, what I wanted my design response to achieve, was this:

To shift/change (even slightly) the public’s perception of homelessness (e.g. how easy it is to become homeless, etc.). This would cause the public to be less judgmental and more understanding, help them refrain from jumping to conclusions, be more willing to help and more informed in how to help. The shift in perspectives and attitudes would benefit the homeless and also the organisations seeking to help them.

Continue reading “{post 8} the process of arriving at a design response.”


{post 5} the issue with assumption + concerns of life.

interview. probe. findings. reflection. judith tan.

00_title 2
(Think Eat Write Read 2014)

In this post, I will explain, record and analyse my findings from some primary research I conducted in the hopes of understanding some of the viewpoints young adults have on the issue of homelessness.

Continue reading “{post 5} the issue with assumption + concerns of life.”

Interview and Probe about the association between environment and obesity & healthy living

Blog Post 5: Approaches to design for change, design-led ethnography

Written by Hyunjoung You


I have conducted the interview about obesity & healthy living to my specific issue to my interviewee in the class. There are five findings from this primary research.


1.  Interesting issue about obesity & healthy living

The interviewee was more interested in right diet than other issues that are related to obesity and healthy living. She thought that people do not have enough knowledge what diet is good for their health and preventing from being obese. Therefore, she believed the early education is important so people can use to have proper diets.

Through her answer, I realized people were aware of the importance of right diet. However, there are no opportunities that people learn which diet is better properly. I thought children education would be helpful to solve future problem is being obesity to children.


2. Major contributors of obesity & healthy living

Modern culture & busy life

The interviewee said it is one of major contributors to obesity & healthy living. Many people do not have time to do exercise, and cook at home. Today people prefer eating outside or buying takeaway food due to convenience. Also, some people pursue their convenience too much; even though the distance is short, some people choose driving car rather than taking walk.

Advertisement industry

The interviewee talked about food advertisement as well. She could see lots of soft drink like Coca Cola or junk food ads, but it is hard to find the advertisements for alcohol, soft drink or food by healthy companies.


She pointed out the lack of education about right diet in childhood. Children education is important to prevent from being obesity. She believed that eating habit could make people being healthier or not.

Three contributors that the interviewee came up with obesity & healthy living were all appropriate. Besides, I found three of them are related to my issue. It seems like busy life tend to make people living sedentary lifestyle. In addition, the environment they live in has more unhealthy food shops than healthier food shops. Therefore, it might bring about a limited choice of diets to people.


3. Active urban design prevents obesity or not

My interviewee was not sure if active urban design could prevent obesity. However, she was certain that it could help public health in general; more green spaces and better recreational areas can encourage people to exercise more. She also gave me the example that is dedicated urban bicycle lanes are really helpful for people who are thinking about cycling especially in Australia, as it can be dangerous to cycle on roads. Additional parks and green spaces are also good for promoting the community to do physical activities.

My interview has a broad understanding of the association between our environment and public health. This shows how our environment impacts on our health.


4. The possible opposition to active urban design

The interviewee thought there would probably be opposing views of creating active urban design since everyone would always have different opinions. However, she did not think that the disagreement was based on whether or not they wanted to have health promoting urban design. The disagreement might be going to be about what kinds of urban design in specific that is needed in the area. She said there would be concerns, for example, do we want to build a cool playground for kids or build a public gym? She was sure this was the type of opposing opinion happened all the time.

I realized that I overlooked the thing that my interviewee pointed out. It was nice time to think about other issues about this solution.


5. The ideas for preventing obesity

She mentioned about children education again, but she thought urban design and children education could be connected. For example, growing plants or fruit by children in specific areas to help them have right diets.

I thought it was good idea combining both ideas together. Hence, children can be familiar to eating vegetables and healthy food, and some parts of urban design create by public.



After the interview, due to my issue that I have looked at so far is about the association between environment and obesity & healthy living. Therefore, I wondered the environment around her in particular to food industry. I asked she usually cook at home or not, and then, she said that she normally ate food outside. Therefore, I asked her to capture the map of her place to see what kinds of food industry are located in.

map from r.png
The map around building 6 and interviewee’s house (http://maps.uts.edu.au/map.cfm)


This image was from my interviewee, and she put the red lines on the place where she normally went to eat. She also mentioned there are some missing shops like KFC, sushi shop, and lots of takeaway food shops between building 6 and central station such as Thai, Chinese, and sandwich shop, and so on. She lives in UTS accommodation that is why she usually has food around there. She added there are not much healthy food shops compares to sugary or junk food shops; therefore, she does not have many choices to choose healthier foods.

Through this probe, even though I looked at the food environment of small area, I could find that many people are already exposed to those kinds of food industry. The way to prevent it is only a change of our environment for people. We need to choose healthier choices easily in our environment, and it can be happened by our acts. It might be one of our responsibilities; everyone should be aware of it, and act now.

After primary research, I could see what is difference between primary research and secondary research. When I used secondary research to write previous blog posts, secondary research includes existing research, and involves analysis or literature reviews. However, primary research, especially conducting interview and probe by one person was personal. Thus, I could get diverse perspectives of the issue by different people; they have different opinions and ideas, so it is really helpful to come up with the thoughts that I could not have.

post five: harsh perceptions & realities of homelessness

by zena dakkak


Understanding perceptions and stereotyping is key in understanding how and why society thinks of homeless people in the way they do. For my interview I really wanted to dig deep and uncover the thoughts of people between the ages of 18-25. I interviewed a university student to further discover these issues and explore the issue of homelessness and how her views could impact my findings.


I began my interview with some basic questions to understand what kind of perspective April has on the homeless community. Ultimately when asked how she feels when she sees a homeless person she expressed her sympathy for them.

“I feel pity, and feel sorry for them. I share empathy for them, as they are very unfortunate”

To further investigate her perception of homeless people I continued to ask what she thinks the causes of homelessness is. Unsurprisingly, the answers that were provided were as I expected as I had the same views before I started my investigation into homelessness. Based on her assumed knowledge and what she’s heard, she stated that she feels the main causes of homelessness are mainly drugs and alcohol, family and financial issues. But as we progressed with our conversation I discovered she’d rather spend her money on herself because she’s uncertain of where they’d spend the money if she donated it to them. She expressed that instead of change they will continue to waste their money on unnecessary items rather than changing their lifestyle. But the uncertainty is that maybe they don’t know where to begin, or are too embarrassed to approach centres.

The conversation develops into the harsh realities the issue of homelessness and how the people of the public view it. As a university student that passes Central tunnel all the time, there are constantly homeless people asking for spare change or for food. Often ignored, they are perceived as invisible. When asked what her response is if she were to be approached and asked for help by a homeless person, she states that she carries on like it’s a causal day, oblivious to her surroundings and continues to walk.

“Usual casual day walks past, ignore than and decline”

Because of this repeated action the thought of her ignoring a homeless person quickly leaves her mind and does not linger resulting with her getting used to the action and moving on with her day.

As we discuss the issue of homeless in the short amount of time that we had, she conveys her thoughts on how society and the public are selfish and only like to think of themselves when it comes to complex and social issues like homelessness. The issue of homelessness isn’t often spoken about because society chooses to ignore and dehumanise them causing them to think that they are lesser than themselves. She communicates that they don’t concern us or impact our daily lives so as a result we neglect them and ignore their requests for help.

Design Probe

To further gather insight into the extent of the issue of homelessness around the city, I asked my interviewee to keep a tally of all the homeless people she sees on the way home. The results are as follows.

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday
8 7 5 10 6 7 6

The amount of people shown vary from day to day but show a significant insight into just how many people live on the street. This is a small indication to show just how big this issue is and that extra awareness needs to established in order to abolish these typical stereotypes.


Given the short time we had to conduct the interview, I was able to gather some insight into the issue of homelessness among the age group discussed earlier. Of course with more interviews I think I would have a better understanding into the perceptions of my audience.

As expected, my interview confirmed my thoughts of the stereotypes already established within society. After investigating into the mind of my interviewee it was clear that most of the communities do not know the struggles homeless people go through to survive. They take one look at them and quicken their pace to avoid any contact with them. Hopefully with extra research and findings, I hope to create a better understanding of homelessness and social exclusion for communities.


Five Summary points

  • Evidence that there is a lack of understanding when it comes to homelessness
  • Instead of assisting the homeless and have a better understanding of their situation, the public is more likely to pass by and use the money for themselves
  • Society is viewed as selfish. They only like to think of themselves when it comes to materialistic objects. Whereas the homeless view them as a survival tool
  • Homelessness is a complex and underrated issue that needs awareness to educate the public about this problem within the community
  • Stereotypes were confirmed while progressing with the interview

Approaches to Design for Change, Design-Led Ethnography


Audience Age 18-25 | Persona, University Student

Have you heard of climate change?

Yes, a lot of controversial viewpoints, from false and factual opinions.

When you hear that term what comes to mind; i.e. phrases, ideas, key words, opinions, stories?

According to this knowledge of it, is a legitimate believer, however also influenced by the information available to me and unsure if this information is completely trustworthy of not. There is a sense of skepticism involved.

Can you recall the last time climatic issues became apparent to you?

Much of what is known about climate change comes from the media; news, articles, Facebook sharing and posting, as well as other forms of social media sharing (twitter, online news platforms and so on).

Do you remember an experience, hearing a friend talk about it, on tv, or a personal encounter regarding it? How did you feel?

Its hard to pinpoint an exact occasion or moment. The best thing that could be referenced is when I went to the Great Barrier Reef when I was younger, approximately ten years ago. The landscape and diversity of the coral reef is a strong tourist attraction and understandably so, because of its apparent beauty, coral colours, marine species. Hearing the recent developments and the issues concerning the UN and Australian government cover ups, it would be interested to go back a see personally the developments.

How do you engage with these environmental issues? What could be more available to you to help you engage more? 

Essentially I am intrigued and concerned at the same time. Intrigued for the future and future generations, to see these climatic changes overtime. Then, whilst I m concerned that this should be an issue and that this is a legitimate issue it is a large issues. It is hard to understand what I could do as a single person in the grand scheme of things. Sometimes, I feel it’s not prominent and not regularly accessible to me as an issue to understand. At the same time much of this may be due to accessibility. If there were more accessibility to programs, interactive, actively contributing and seeing the changes in what contributors are actually doing. To do and see the results would allow audiences to feel more rewarded and impactful. I have had friends that collected rubbish up in the Whitsundays and who say that this practice, although is small reps the rewards of the practice. Something like this might help audiences see there is ongoing work to be done.


• Sometimes climate change is masked but the media circus surrounding the issue. The core of climate change, over-populations, emissions, global warming and all key dangerous contributions are overridden by the suspect of the issue.

• People understand the conspiracy more than the issues, but want to be more involved in a sense.

• With better understanding an interactivity with the issue will allow audiences to be more involved and engaged in the issue.

• Climate change is a problem resulted from many broader and larger issues in human activity, it is difficult to pin point. Sometimes the varying ideas may cause confusion. How as a designer can I make this issue more crystal clear?

• Audiences aren’t emotionally invested.

Audience Age 12-16 | Persona, High School Student

Have you heard of climate change?


When you hear that term what comes to mind; i.e. phrases, ideas, key words, opinions, stories?

The seasons, green house gases, the sun, burning of fossil fuels and that the world is getting hotter this is global warming.

Can you recall the last time climatic issues became apparent to you?

When hearing about it, it would have been last week. I learnt about it during science. Outside of learning about it I don’t hear much else, not really through media or anything like that. It is an issue, because we are burning and using resources which is affecting the atmosphere.

Do you remember an experience, hearing a friend talk about it, on tv, or a personal encounter regarding it? How did you feel?

I am concerned about the next generations, concerned about what the world will be like as we grow. It was interesting to experience the hot days in winter and the changing warm weather, it is quite bizarre. Whilst we are using up natural resources, its disappointing. But all in all, I’m not sure how I feel about it, I do care, but the impacts and my understanding of climate change make me unsure. It is a large issue, but I’m not sure what I can do.

How do you engage with these environmental issues? What could be more available to you to help you engage more? 

Essentially, to learn about the issue more I would ask and talk to teachers or talk to peers. More active programs for the youth to maintain waste and pollution. More media coverage and documentaries to educate people. More teaching requirements during school that could allow the youth for greater understanding. Whilst I learn about it in science, I’d like to see it incorporated in other subjects like geography, history, english, learning about sustainability in woodworks or impacts of agriculture in food technology. Or, more social media campaigns with greater and diverse sharing experiences because I haven’t really encountered any.


• There was a vague overtone to the interview, the interviewee was generally not sure or uninterested in the interview.

• However there is a clear understanding of what exactly climate change is and some of the obvious impacts that the interviewee had learnt during school.

• During this interview climate change was and is apparent, the idea of scepticism was never mentioned as compared to persona one.

• The interviewee wanted more awareness more readily available and reaching the youth at a more mass scale.

• Climate change is masked, but global warming is more well known.


Probe Instructions

A variety of two age groups are represented in this probe. Both groups are students, the first between 18-25 and the second 12-16. Each audience was proposed with a question or phrase to consider. Thoughtfully suggesting where their answer may lie on the scale of two responses. By drawing points along the scale, the audience represented how they felt or reacted in accordance to the issue of climate change. 


• The university student had more affirmative and definitive answers with clear insights into their views, a clearer understanding of climate change.

• It is interesting to note the sense of urgency from both perspectives. The young adult suggesting rapid increases and sense of grand scale within their answers. Although, the child suggesting affects of human activity contributing to climate change as an issue of the future.

• Both audiences have a positive, proactive understanding of climate change and issues surrounding this such as depleting natural resources, extinction of species, erosion, deforestation, marine biodiversity and so on.

• Political and scientific understandings were rather contrasting, with the adults finding it completely restricting, whilst younger audiences find it active. A sense of bias could be noted here.

• Overall, both audiences had similar answers. Further probing could look into older generations and the elderly, contrasting opinions and understandings of these two spectrums.

POST 5: Approaches to design for change, design-led ethnography

by Jansie Vo

Adults commonly tell young people that the teenage years are the “best years of your life.” The rosy remembrance highlights happy groups of high school students energetically involved at a dance or sporting event, and a bright-eyed couple holding hands or sipping sodas at a local restaurant. This is only part of the picture. Life for many young people is a painful tug of war filled with mixed messages and conflicting demands from parents, teachers, coaches, employers, friends and oneself. Growing up—negotiating a path between independence and reliance on others—is a tough business. It creates stress, and it can create.

To gain further insights from primary research, the interview, conducted on 16 August 2016, with two young interviewees who are university students doing mental health issue provided information into important factors influencing mental illness, targetting to the prevalence of adolescent stress and depression. The result of interview shows that some of the stressful events related to young people experience, describes how young people deal with stress. The interviewee, she drops some serious knowledge about depression from her personal experience from friends and surrounding. From her understanding, when someone is depressed, she gives them advice. However, she understands they don’t want to listen, just try to be supportive, try to provide love. If they say they want to be left alone, leave them alone, and tell an adult that there is serious darkness going on, because it can be very dangerous to be depressed, they can become suicidal. What helps them throughout their depression is the love and support of us, be by their side throughout the whole process, to help them keep moving forward.

The hardest part in depression is in a dark state where they have no hope, no thoughts of moving forward, only staying in the past and present and dwelling on all of bad decisions and negative thoughts. The biggest way of coming out of depression is inner resolve. She thinks when the feeling super down or having tantrums or not able to participate in any activities, the need is to control themself, encourage to think positively, and move towards the light.

(My mental health day, 2014)
(Daily Naskaban, 2015)

The probe I asked my interviewee is to collect the information on social media in mental health and from this task, I found out most young people become stressed for many reasons. The most common of these are:

  • Break up with boy/girl friend
  • Increased arguments with parents
  • Trouble with brother or sister
  • Increased arguments between parents
  • Change in parents’ financial status
  • Serious illness or injury of family member
  • Trouble with classmates
  • Trouble with parents

These events are centered in the two most important domains of a teenager’s life: home and school. They relate to issues of conflict and loss. Loss can reflect the real or perceived loss of something concrete such as a friend or money, and it can mean the loss of such as self-worth, respect, friendship or love. In addition there are several barriers to integrate healthy lifestyles into the daily life identified is consisted of lack of energy and motivation, abuse drug use, and lack of time and personal views and attitudes towards health promotion as important elements influencing in mental health.

Five points of insight:

  • Personal experience is a significant element to gain insights in mental illness
  • Try to be supportive, try to provide love
  • Listen more and be with them throughout the whole process
  • Social media is more impact on physical activity and mental health benefits in daily life
  • The biggest way of coming out of depression is inner resolve


Hanson, M.2015, Social media can contribute to mental health issues, viewed 29 August 2016, <http://www.dailynebraskan.com/news/social-media-can-contribute-to-mental-health-issues/article_a602b910-6b0e-11e5-9f5f-c7eb6c57f02a.html&gt;

My mental health day, 2014, Maintain Your Mental health as a Social Media User, viewed 29 August 2016, <http://www.mymentalhealthday.org/tag/social-media-depression/&gt;


POST 5: Approaches to design for change, design-led ethnography

My interview focused on understanding people’s knowledge of, and responses to online privacy. In both interviews I began by asking my respondents what steps they took to protect their privacy. This simple question highlighted the dichotomy of online privacy; with one user saying they took a number of steps and the other saying they took none. Interestingly the respondent who did nothing simply stated that it was not worth the effort, as they felt their personal data would be collected no matter what. Following on from this, I also asked both interviewees about their opinion of data collection. In this instance both respondents stated that they had never really considered the implications of ubiquitous data collection, with both indicating they were against it in principal but were yet to have any negative experiences with it. The idea that people are generally unaware about their privacy and the information they contribute to digital systems is something I explored further in my probe.

Visitor and resident mapping provides a framework to analyse the myriad of ways that people engage with technology. Unlike other models, V&R mapping does not seek to label people with fundamental identities. Instead, it aims to identify the modes of behaviour and the motivations behind our use of technology (White & Lanclos 2015). To show this, participants are required to plot their online activity on a two dimensional axis. The y-axis provides a space to illustrate the distinctions between public and private activities, while the x-axis proves a space for participants to reflect on the visibility of their actions (White & Lanclos 2015).  Visibility is measured on a scale from resident to visitor. A resident is someone who maintains an active profile within an online platform by creating content and contributing to the discussion. A visitor is someone with little visibility within the platform they are using (University of Hull 2015). Visitors see the web as a tool, and thus only engage with it when a need arises.

Post 5, image 1
One of the V&R maps returned from my probe

Above is an example of an annotated visitor and resident map. In this instance the author has adhered to the common practice of situating social media platforms towards the resident side of the axis. Interestingly, the respondent has placed Twitter closer to the visitor end of the spectrum, annotating that they use it to follow the activity of others, but rarely engage in the conversation themselves. Likewise, YouTube is placed at the visitor end of the scale, with the author stating they watch content, but do not create their own or comment on others. Resident platforms like these are able to occupy a variety of locations due to the differing modes of engagement and motivations of their users. The discrepancies between intended and actual use was something I was interested in, and was able to gather information on using the V&R framework. V&R mapping was useful in this instance as it provided a rigid enough structure to return comparable results, while also allowing for enough freedom to uncover interesting insights. With that being said, it would have been good to get more respondents to complete the activity. Having a larger collection of datasets would allow for better comparisons of the ways that people interact with technology.

  • People are generally either highly aware, or ignorant of how much data is collected about them by digital systems.
  • Most people are unaware of what their personal information is used for.
  • It is hard for even the most careful individuals to avoid having their data collected online.
  • The majority of people do not understand the commercial value of their personal information.
  • Seemingly meaningless data can be quickly and easily assembled to form a detailed picture of an individual.

Reference list

University of Hull 2015, Mapping your own digital world, viewed 24 August 2016, <http://www2.hull.ac.uk/lli/skillshub/digitallit/DY-3.html>.

White, D. & Lanclos, D. 2015, Visitors and residents mapping workshop, viewed 24 August 2016, <http://daveowhite.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/VandRWorkshopformat240215.pdf>.


China’s Smog: An Interview and Probe

Post 5 by Lucy Allen

For someone living with Type 1 Diabetes it’s really easy to fall into the trap of thinking that everyone knows and understands the disease and if not, that they should. This somewhat arrogant view was challenged when undertaking an interview and probing activity as part of design-led ethnography.

I devised four probing questions that I hoped would open up discussion and allow my interviewee to really articulate their assumptions, knowledge and understanding of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. My hope for these questions was that I could develop a better understanding of how people view those living with Type 1 Diabetes and the assumptions they make. 

My probing questions:

  1. What comes to mind when I say Diabetes?
  2. Do you have any experience with Diabetes? Say with family, friends, peers?
  3. What type of body do you associate with Diabetes?
  4. If you were diagnosed with Diabetes today how do you think your life would change?

I wasn’t however prepared for if my partner had no previous experience or knowledge of Type 1. Quite naively it hadn’t even crossed my mind that this was a possibly, perhaps because to me it is so normal and day-to-day. Once realising my questions were too tricky for someone that knows nothing about the disease I began trying to adapt my questions to make them a little broader whilst also explaining a bit about Type 1 to my partner. I realised after my partner very apologetically couldn’t answer my questions that my interview would have to take a different path. 

With some help from my tutor I was able to delve into my partners own experience with health and wellbeing, particularly in relation to his birth country, China. I asked him questions about Chinese culture and the health of people over there and he informed me of the smog in China and how this has a enormous impact on the health and wellbeing of the Chinese. The most interesting thing I learnt throughout the process was that the smog in China is so thick that at the end of a day when people take their masks off, the filters have black sludge on them. I found it hard to imagine when my partner told me this, we are so used to clean fresh air here in Australia and it really made me appreciate this.

It was a really eye-opening experience to carry out an interview that was so different to the one I’d played out in my head. It was a fantastic experience for me learning to think on my feet and ask probing questions. What eventuated was me not so much learning about the area I was focused on but being engaged and enlightened in a much more personal and interesting topic to my partner that in turn informed and engaged me.

Some interesting points I took away from my interview are

  • There is a bigger focus in China on Cancer as a leading health issue apposed to Diabetes
  • Air Quality is seen as a big threat to the health of the Chinese
  • The ‘smog’ effects lungs, teeth, skin and general ability to exercise and be outside
  • Government has attempted to fix to smog but it as seen as a helpless situation, very few people have hope it will ever change
  • There is a focus on physical health apposed to invisible e.g. Amputated limbs vs. mental health disease

When deciding on a probing activity for my partner to undertake it was tempting at first to focus on increasing his knowledge of Type 1 Diabetes. In the end however I appreciated that my interview had taken use down a different path and that this was now an opportunity for me to learn more about China and their healh and wellbeing. I started out with quite complex and time-consuming probing tasks however was advised to keep these simple so as not to make the task feel like a chore.

Smog in Beijing (Huffington Post, 2015)

My probing exercise:

  1. Undertake 3 x 10minute research sessions on the health of China. Record any interesting points and health terms
  2. Write out how the life of Chinese people would be different if the smog disappeared

The outcomes I received from this activity were really fantastic. It was amazing how when somebody can relate to an issue or is passionate about it how it inspires them to throw themselves into a task. Being able to access Chinese news and website my partner was then able to translate many of the statistics and research for me, invaluable information. It was also really great to see health terms highlighted clearly, this really informed the associative word task we undertook the following week.

Screen Shot 2016-08-26 at 11.53.50 PM
An great extract from my partners research. Translated Chinese health statistics with highlighted health terms

When reading my partners response to what would change if the smog in China didn’t exist I suddenly realised how interlinked the smog and health are. As my partner pointed out that alongside the health risks, the smog has additional physical and emotional effect on people. It stops the Chinese from spending time outside and exercising as well as blocking the sun meaning most days and grey and dull. Being informed of this issue that is so foreign to us was really incredible and I feel lucky to have learnt so much from my partner and his access to relevant information. 

Screen Shot 2016-08-30 at 10.23.41 AM
Chinese News Source my partner used as part of my probe activity

Looking back on the interview process some part of me wishes I had been better prepared with broader probing questions however at the same time I am so happy with how the process evolved and the path it took. I have learnt so much and been engaged in a totally new realm of health that I wouldn’t have been otherwise. In saying that I would have liked to do some more unique and creative probing exercises. Due to the nature of the topic the interview led us to it was hard to come up with fun and original tasks to give to my partner. In this particular circumstance I do think that the probing exercises turned out well and really benefited both my partner and I.

Reference List

English, A.J, 2015, “Inside Story – China’s Pollution Dilemma”, Youtube, viewed 23rd of August 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYzedoKTx3Q&gt;

Hunt, K., Lu, S., “Smog in China Closes Schools and Constructions Site, Cuts Traffic in Beijing”, CNN, viewed 22nd of August 2016, <http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/07/asia/china-beijing-pollution-red-alert/&gt;

NTDonChina, 2013, Top Health Expert Says China’s Smog “Scarier than SARS”, Youtube, viewed 24th of August 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsCfzAncWLk&gt;