What are we talking about? The Language of Homelessness

Post 10 By Alice Stollery

Reflection & Revision

My colleagues raised a number of issues with my initial draft proposal. Being my first attempt, it was quite rough and I had not given enough consideration to the requirements of the brief.

My colleague could not see the link between my proposal and the required 18-25 year age bracket. And she was right, I had got so carried away with my research that I had lost sight of this requirement. She questioned whether this issue of language had come out of this age bracket or whether I was attempting to target 18-25 year olds with my design proposal. Reviewing this point, I will use tweets that have come out of this age bracket while contrasting their misuse of language with facts and statistics that focus on homeless youth within Australia. I also aim to target the 18-24 year old age bracket through my design proposal, by basing the exhibition at the UTS campus or other university campuses. I would like to target this age group, as I believe it is important for them to be empathetic towards this issue as they are the next generation of leaders, teachers, politicians and by starting with them, I will be able to instigate change in the future. Their views on this issue are incredibly important.

Concerns were also raised with the location or geographical nature of my data. Am I able to tell where tweets are being tweeted from and whether this issue of language is an issue that occurs within Australia. Reviewing my data, I have found that terms such as tramp or hobo are geared more towards an American context while misusing the term homeless occurs within Australia. Therefore I have narrowed my focus to the misuse of this term. I have also experienced the misuse of language in my daily life long before this assignment, throughout school, work and university. It is not unusual to hear someone describe themselves or their friends as looking homeless. However, it was not until I saw all of these comments collated on a spreadsheet of tweets that I was able to recognise language as a key barrier in solving the issue.

Another piece of useful feedback included the form of my response. I was told not to limit it to a book so I have given further thought to how this data could be represented. I have decided to create a public installation or exhibition that could possibly include posters, flyers or brochures as well. I will elaborate further on this in my proposal below.

The Issue (From research)

The misuse of language is a significant barrier in tackling homelessness. Insensitive, and politically incorrect terms such as hobo, tramp and bum, and the casual misuse of the term homeless to describe ones appearance, have seeped into the common vernacular. Dehumanising those affected by homelessness through this passive misuse of language takes away from the real issue, meaning wider perceptions of homelessness are less empathetic and communities have become detached from sufferers.

Through research into homelessness in the mainstream media, journal articles, social media platforms, image libraries and brainstorming sessions, the misuse of language and terminology around the issue has emerged as a negative actor that is creating a barrier between those in need and those with the power to help. We talk about homelessness in reference to appearance, rather than experience. In short, we no longer seem to be talking about the actual issue.

Possible Change

A design response that tackles this wider problem of perception and language will create influence rather than direct action. This will be an attempt to create internal change in those that misuse these terms, in order to create empathy, and ultimately to generate positive outcomes, enabling more people to engage with the issue rather than offering an immediate solution.

Design Action to Support Change: Data Driven Design

An exhibition titled “What are we talking about?!”  that aims to juxtapose the the misuse of the term ‘homeless’ in everyday conversation with the real issue and experience of homeless youth. Ultimately highlighting the disconnect we are currently experiencing between the two. The exhibition will be a visualisation of data collated from twitter and online statistics on youth homelessness collated during the research process. It will be a contradiction of meanings within the same issue and will highlight how language is acting as a barrier in our ability to help the homeless.

Sketch of the exhibition space depicting alternative perspectives of the issue.


I will design the exhibition, mapping how the audience will move through the space as well as designing the look and feel for the exhibition, including collateral such as postcards and posters. The exhibition will be a series of hanging posters that enable you to see both sides of the issue. Looking in one direction you will be bombarded with the misuse of language as you see tweets that misuse the term homeless, for example “OMG I look so homeless today” or “That moment you look at a new pic of your ex and wonder how you could have dated him. #whatwasithinking #lookinghomeless” while the other side will contradict this with overwhelming statistics about youth homelessness such as “How can we still call Australia home when 32,000 young people don’t have one?” or personal experiences of sufferers such as “My friends don’t know I’m homeless”. The idea is that while you are looking in one direction at the language we use, you are unable to see the real issue  on the other side of the posters and as a result you are unable to empathise with sufferers. If you choose to talk about homelessness in this way, you are unable to be empathetic and to understand what sufferers are really going through. Visualising and organising data in this way will enable people to see both sides of the issue, one at a time and will hopefully generate internal change within the audience without publicly shaming those who have used this language in the past.



Post 10: Changing the Face of Homelessness : Urban Directory for the Homeless

– Maria Yanovsky 2016


There were several key insights I gained from asking my peers to review my draft proposition. On a positive note, the collaborative process between both human actors (non homeless people and homeless people) facilitated the creation of “solidarity to each-other” as picked up by my Tutor, Simone, which is an important aspect of my concept. However, several students and even the tutor picked up on how complex the process is, which would over complicate the effectiveness of the overall message being communicated. There are a few things I need to work on to narrow down the complexity of my proposal.

Firstly, I proposed that participants would receive a bundle of stories that demonstrate a breadth of emotional stories sourced from homeless experiences. It was noted that this experience would dull the experience and make the interaction feel almost chore like which would not encourage people to contribute to the experience.

Secondly it was noted that receiving a blank space of paper (especially at the size I was proposing), is too daunting for anyone, even creative practitioners, which is another barrier to the success of the proposal. It was suggested that I set up more parameters. After re-evaluating the brief, I believe it is possible to create some sort of manual generative illustration system to facilitate simple creative practice. However this is a critical point as members of my audience may not perceive themselves as creative practitioners.

Thirdly, it was mentioned that getting my participants to send back the paste-up posters takes the experience out of their hands and that it might be more interesting and fun for them if they got to paste up their work in the streets themselves. This piece of feedback reminded me of the (failed) Kony project which also sent out Guerilla Campaign packs to interested (paying) participants.

This leaves me with a few interesting avenues I can go along. Taking into consideration my audience, I can move any written content into an online platform such as a website which the user may choose to visit. I feel as if this would round off the service design aspect  of my proposal.


Design Proposition

Community Collaboration – “It’s people helping people. Human being working with other human beings to build trust, to find the root problem of their and develop specialised individualised plans for that person. Its people respecting people, acknowledging that we are equals.”- J.Hunt, 2014

Project Title:  Changing the Face of Homelessness : Urban Directory

Emergent Practice: Hybrid of Generative Practice and Service Design

The Issue: Within contemporary society, homelessness is a “swept under the carpet” concept despite how common this problem is becoming. Extensive stigmas and negative perceptions are large inhibitors for creating positive change, as interactions between non homeless and homeless residents is often met with negativity, hostility and most in concern, invisibility. To a struggling, marginalised group who are already experiencing a plethora of issues, further marginalisation can entrap a sense of hopelessness and a decreased sense of self worth. This is one of the largest barriers to entrenched homelessness. which does not help to engender a sense of hope within homeless community.


To create a sense of hope, understanding and community collaboration through a service design based Guerrilla Street art project in the form of a mailable package where participants will receive a designed poster which they can colour and populate Sydney’s Urban landscape themselves supported with a campaign website. Colour, can go a long way in creating positive tone and emotions, through creating vibrancy and friendliness which are core themes at the heart of this project.

Generative Design/ Collaborative Component

Participants will be sent a Paste Up package, which will include 1 A2 Paste up sheet (design included) and a small booklet that will explain the collaboration, how to make wheat paste, and how to paste up participant creations. The branding will be strictly black and white typographic and vector illustrations, to allow all colour and any form of expression to be generated by the participant. The design of the poster content will be based off experimental drawing styles so that members of the homeless community do not feel exploited through clear expressions of recognizbale personalities, this also provides a prescriptive guideline for participants to interact with that removes the daunting nature of a blank sheet of paper. There is no set colour palette or colouring style, all of that will be left to the pleasure of the participant. The project aims to act upon the misconception that homeless means “living on the street” through the incursion of the posters into the urban setting. The ephemeral nature of Street Art will also assist in the generation of new content, as the posters decay, the campaign can be updated with more illustrations, more contributions more stories. Keeping the project relevant.

The Service

The entire campaign aims to tie in generative design practices for Guerrilla styled advertising of service related hashtags which will be pasted into Sydney Urban landscape. The project aims to directly bring a directory of useful hashtags to anyone within the extensive homeless community an array of useful hashtags in which they may seek further assistance on their own accord. These posters will also aim to capture the curiosity of any passers by so they may to, curiously research the project and the hash tags generating further understanding, empathy and down the line, a greater sense of hope from increased participation in the project and testimonials from members who have benefited from the campaign. To ensure that early participants gain some sort of understanding, the service will be tied in with a website which will provide stories sourced from interviews, blogs, forums and Talks which match the initial design. The website will also explain the campaign, provide testimonials, provide additional downloadables in the event printed packages are lost as well as provide a project aim.

This design response targets several patterns of behaviour, it targets viral trends where especially within the target audience, digital media is easily accessed and exploited through social media such as Facebook and Twitter, where hashtags run rampant as a promotional tool. It targets the current fad of adult, therapeutic colouring in books and it targets the search of social services for the homeless. The most important important behaviour this interaction considers is the need for privacy among both of the human actors, who may not always want to make their motives or issues known to everybody for judgement especially at face value.

For the non homeless actors, this contribution will aim to develop a greater understanding on the concept of homelessness as well as a sense of creative charity hopefully making the actor feel comfortable that they don’t have to make a financial or face to face contribution to help out a marginalised group within Sydney. For the homeless actors, this contribution will aim to create a sense of cheer and hope through the artistic expressions being pasted up in their “un-homely spaces”. The design proposal thus aims to give non direct assistance to homeless people. The use of bright vibrant images generated by non homeless is to provide “the catchy hook” so that attention is drawn to the supporting hashtag directory of social services that homeless people in Sydney can use.
For non homeless actors. there is no linear direction of touch points. A non homeless person can be informed of this service by simply walking in the street and seeing examples, or when they perusing online where initial examples can be used to promote the service. Facebook, Instagram and twitter are effective tools for quickly communicating the existence of any ephemeral material. Another key touchpoint is the website, which will feature the crux of the design project. It will contain stories, paste up instructions, and generative design instructions as well as a downloadable version of the printout that will be mailed. It will also feature details about the project to well inform any member of the human actors of the significance of this project. The final touchpoint, is the paste up kit that will be sent to participants. This will include a full scale, ready to use paste up, a booklet with generative design instructions, and paste up instructions (including how to make environmentally safe wheat paste) in a branded envelope.


This slideshow requires JavaScript.

(Image Sequence, Design Proposal Mocks. Yanovsky,M. 2016)

Hunt, J.  Published on Oct 04, 2014, ‘How Can I bring Dignity to the Homeless?”, Viewed September 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-g3x_cuK5SM&gt;.

post 10: design proposition


After explaining my design proposal a number of questions were raised on whether my idea was ethically suitable for what I was trying to achieve. My concept revolved around diminishing the idea of judgements, assumptions and stereotypes through the use of choosing an option that would inform the user whether or not the story was relating to a homeless person. Thus creating a realisation for the user that their initial thoughts are not what they seem. In doing this, the design of the proposal puts the user on the spot and judges them as well, not keeping in mind the homeless person being judged also. As this was not my aim, I took a different turn with my interaction.

One thing that was not made clear through my proposal was the interaction process to reach to a result. I was advised to take a further look into the interaction process of how the design would work and how it can be further designed to be a generative design.
After listening to my groups proposals I felt that my idea was lacking what I was originally trying to achieve. Even though are ideas may be different in regards to context the outcome of what we are all trying to achieve are similar.

To further push my concepts, my group suggested to continue to research into homelessness on digital platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Reddit, online articles/stories) that can inspire me to push through my idea.

draft design proposal

I initially started researching how to prevent homelessness amongst. Gradually, my research led me to notice a strong trail of misconceptions and the harsh realities of homelessness. At this point it was a scary realisation that the world views homeless in such negative and hopeless way. My research took a turn in paths after we did the data scrapping. Through this research it further conveyed the misconceptions and little knowledge that the public had on homeless people. Finally I took an interest into how society relies of face value to determine if someone is homeless or not rather than having an open mind and look deeper into their situation.

project title.
Its not what it seems

practice type.
Generative Design

the issue.
In today’s society the youth of the public have become desensitised to social issues while keeping themselves at first thought. This has resulted in members of society to have misconceptions about homelessness and take it for face value. Factors such as appearances, assumptions, media, film, and first impressions play a major part into how society perceives the homeless community. The first thing that enters a persons mind upon passing a homeless person is the stereotypical thoughts that this person may have a drug and alcohol addiction or they haven’t showered or groomed themselves in a long time. But what people don’t know is that these people are humans just like everyone in the world. Some of which are educated, have a job but are not in the best situation at the moment. Complex issue

possible change.
 To break the stereotypes and multilayered assumptions the youth have on the homeless community by keeping an open mind and view complexities of a situation that it is not what it seems.

the design action to support the change.
 An interactive board will be erected in well populated areas where the youth are likely to thrive (university campuses, shopping centres). From this the board will consist of an image library of real homeless people who may look successful and financially stable but are struggling with their lives. The user will be unaware of their situation until they take a closer look into their lives. It will continue showing a slideshow of images until the user has picked a photo to view. Here the user will take a closer look into the life of the current persona chosen in the image. For example, two friends are shown in a coffee shop, one of which is homeless. In order to get around her daily life she is couch surfing at her friend’s house with a history of domestic violence. In addition, she’s a migrant and is not eligible for any housing. From this users are able to see that homelessness is not what they think is it. Appearance plays an important role with how people view and judge homeless people.

further feedback

Upon refining my draft proposal and receiving feedback from my group, there were some points to take a closer look at. These are as follows:

  • My tutor Simone, pointed out that the user is very passive by only clicking things and suggested that things need to be interactive in order for this design to work
  • I needed to create an active presence and discover other ways to reveal the stories in a positive and engaging way
  • They also suggested trying to imagine engaging with the design and how it can be shifted in a space
  • They also pointed out that maybe an interactive board was not the best option to achieve my design proposition

From this I was able to veer into a different path to create a physical interaction rather than using an interactive board.

design proposal

Behind the Curtain

project type.
Generative Design

In today’s society, the youth of the public have become desensitised to social issues while keeping themselves at first thought. As a result, misconceptions about homelessness have been taken out of context and is viewed by first impressions lead by the current stereotypes. Factors such as appearances, assumptions, media, film, and first impressions play a major part into how society perceives the homeless community. The first thing that enters a persons mind upon passing a homeless person is the stereotypical thoughts that this person may have a drug and alcohol addiction or have put themselves in that position and aren’t doing anything to remove themselves from their current situation. But what people don’t know is that these people are humans just like everyone in the world. Some of which are educated, have a job but are not in the best situation at the moment.

possible change.
To break the stereotypes and the multilayered assumptions the youth have on the homeless community by keeping an open mind and view the complexities of a situation that it is not what it seems. As well as having a better understanding about the issue, users will develop empathetic feelings towards homeless people in the hopes to take action and make a change in the homeless community and how they generally perceive homeless people. This will also generate a sense of hope that will be reflective from their experience.

the design action to support the change:
A seating arrangement situated in a university setting where an individual or a group of people converse with someone (homeless participant) who is behind a curtain. A set of instructions will be laid out on the table and a set of rules on how to participate with this design. It will prompt them to have an open mind and must solve a riddle to continue forward. Playing on the idea that there is more than what meets the eye, the user will have a normal conversation with them that leads to the revelation that they are conversing with a homeless person. Once the curtain is pulled away they are given a chance to see each other and reflect on their thoughts of their first impressions. Can the conversation between the user and homeless participant change their perceptions before looking at them? This will be followed with a written entry of what they’ve learnt from their experience, that will be displayed for other people to view.

image of how the user will interact with the design
image of how the user will interact with the design – the big reveal. 

Mind Mapping Ideas: The Strengths & Weaknesses of Group Brainstorming

Post 9 by Alice Stollery

Collaboratively brainstorming and mind mapping possible design responses had it’s own set of strengths and weakness. As a group, we spent 10 minutes on each person, first listening to their problem statement and then collectively coming up with ideas for possible solutions or responses. Each person was responsible for documenting their own issue, taking note of ideas they thought had value.


As I have learnt in previous group work and blog posts throughout the semester, this process provided me with a good basic understanding of possible directions my design response could take. I found it to be a good starting point, as the ideas that came out of this session were quite vague and needed further individual development. The ideas from this session end up sparking thoughts and tangents in my mind that enabled me to think of responses I may not have come up with on my own. The process definitely helped when I sat down on my own at home to further refine the ideas and to draft a proposal. As a result the task seemed less daunting.


There were however, a number of weaknesses within the process. As four out of five members of the group had a very similar focus area, it became difficult to continually generate new ideas on the same topic over and over again. The quality and detail in the ideas seem to reduce as we moved around the group. There were also times where there was not a lot of idea generation happening. I think, overall, as a group, we put too much pressure on ourselves to come up with complete and clearly defined responses. Therefore there were times when we had nothing to say, unable to articulate a complete response. In hindsight, we should have been a bit more playful and relaxed with the process, which may have generated more creative responses.

The Misuse of Language: A Mind Map of Ideas

Below I have included the mind map I generated while the group discussed possible responses to my issue of terminology and the misuse of language. As you can see there are a number of tangents and areas that do not make a lot of sense. I have noted some points down that are not exactly design responses but points I found interesting during the process that I thought could possibly inform my direction at a later stage.


Post 8: Changing the Face Of Homelessness

Brainstorming Possibilities for a Design Response.

– Maria Yanovsky 2016


Before reading this post, I implore you to watch this particular TED talk. It is one thing to hear this discussion from global speakers, but there is a resonating power, hearing Orsini’s point of view as a part of the contemporary Australian youth. It is predominantly to the ideas that she is expressing (alienation, stigma, negative assumptions, mistrust, invisibility, stereotypes) that I wish to design to. To understand the crux of homelessness and why I am designing what I am designing, this TED talk is on point the results all my previous posts have been exploring.                 


“If you’re not apart of the solution, you’re part of the problem”- Maurice Young, 2015

From newspaper articles to essays, to social experiments to data mining social media. To analysing images and countless brainstorming. What does this all sum up to? Within my understanding of the core roots of homelessness this entire process has given me clarity into the heart of the issues that drive alienation and dehumization of marginalised social groups such as the homeless. These answers may seem bleak, however the potential for positive change is fruitless. This next post will aim to examine an angle in which I would like to take a design proposition, predominantly focusing on the dehumanisation of Homelessness through stigma; specifically, alienation  which occurs through discourse and voluntary and involuntary human actions. In order to come up with a clear problem statement and draft proposal it was pertinent that I examine the five w’s to narrow down all the research and my thoughts into a concise paragraph.



  • Homeless people are at the pinnacle of this issue, as it both involves and affects them. However, this is such a broad term, there are homeless kids, adults, migrants, mothers, mentally ill people and many who are experiencing many kinds of homelessness which including sleeping on the street, couch surfing, staying at a friends place or in shelters. The term focusses on displacement of the concept of home.
  • The general public and passers by, pedestrians on the street who have a lack of empathy or understanding which can cause a negative reaction and the circulation of stigma with general discourse
  • Support workers, whose resources are stretched thin that devote their spare time to helping homeless people
  • Businesses (with charitable intentions), who despite common discourse and stigma devote a fraction of their hard owned funds to giving back to the community for the sake of the community.
  • Businesses  who on the tip side of the coin take advantage of these negative perceptions to demonstrate “their helping hand of god” to help their own reputation grow as opposed to the benefit of the homeless
  • Urban youth, who misuse language and terms within discourse further perpetuating negative stigma.
  •  Corporate bodies (fashion, technology, media) that peddle the importance of consumerism, shifting the focus off charity and onto the consumption of material goods generating a look and feel for societies to follow



There are several boundaries to the issue of stigma towards homelessness. Linguistic terminology and identification is amongst the most damaging in terms of alienation and stigma, where through discourse terminology is used either ignorantly without an understanding of the terms roots or for the lack of empathy of the emotional impact to those affected by these terms and labels.  Barriers in linguistic can be passive as well, where discourse generates disparaging terms directly associated to those within the affected social group.

Representational barriers such as negative imagery within Television and film (predominantly serial shows and cartoons)  perpetuate existing ideas in societies who are influenced by an often inaccurate and often uncomfortable representation of people from the homeless community which subliminally and through repetition cements stigma.

Through this boundary comes a deeper psychological boundary where instinct drives an incomparable fear. These stem from the psychological where people are told that the homeless are not safe from a young age thus the idea burns on as members of society grow into adulthood. This is where people feel a sense of discomfort from behaviors, appearance or smell. Psychological boundaries also exists in  an almost Darwinian frame of thinking where people shroud the issue with a proverbial blanket rendering it invisible due to the fear that this could possibly happen to “you”  creating an ignorance barrier stemming into a Structural problem of “Us v.s Them” mentality which is further perpetuated through labelling in attempts to discuss and in a way, understand the issue.

Lack of awareness and understanding is one of the most serious barriers to this issue. As demonstrated within my examinations of articles and representation the concept of homelessness is not a considerably heated topic. Limited discussions happen within politics which means even less filters down into society. This generates a lack of empathy as people begin to “sweep under the carpet” an issue that is commonly encountered within urban environments. This barrier comes from a lack of the other three factors listed above as well as a lack of education within institutions which do not specifically highlight homelessness as an issue, rather focus on bullying as a whole.


This sort of stigma happens all the time through various physical and online interactions. On the street this sort of alienation can occur in simple occurrences such as when a member of the homeless community walks passed people in public spaces and people are repelled by their smell or appearance. Stigma occurs when pedestrians walk past members of the homeless community who are sleeping on the street or who are stared at while they sleep. On the obverse, this issue occurs when homeless people are ignored when begging for money. This issue also occurs in shops and restaurants where a member of this community are refused service because they do not fit the standards of social norms. Stigma and alienation occurs (more ignorantly) online with the misuse of labels and terminology when discussing one’s own appearance or physical state and in the rarer instances when discussing those who are affected by this issue directly. Terminology such as this has seeped into social media such as twitter, where fashion bloggers detach terms such as “hobo” in the descriptions of their products.


This problem occurs in both physical and online spaces, within conversation and in print. This problem can be seen walking around densely populated urban areas where members of this community would find a higher concentration of people and resources to help them. In Sydney for example this problem often occurs along George St, in City CBD street corners where people often ignore beggars and buskers at Belmore Park where many people feel it is unsafe to walk at certain times of the night because of a small homeless camp that resides there, in fast food places where members of the homeless community go to buy a cheap meal and at train stations like Central  where many members seek warm, protected shelter. The problem occurs often in passing if either a pedestrian is walking by or a member of the homeless community, generally as indirect contact, however it can occur directly if more direct interaction is made in say for example, a conversational instance where a member of the homeless community is asking passers by for money.

This issue also occurs online in social media (Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat and Instagram) as well as online forums where the continued misuse of terminology is more commonly found due to the internet’s power of invisibility where users can say what they want without fear of judgement.

Stemming from this, the problem occurs in conversation both physical and online where experiences are shared and discussed. This happens in Blogs as well such Reddit, however it can be as seemingly harmless as people discussing the latest “hobo” bag or how “hobo” they look today.

Homeless people are often denied any assistance or have compassionate gestures withheld upon first-glance because people are repelled by uncomfortable smells and disheveled, tattered appearance. This reaction is not only physical but ingrained through common discourse in which their state of homelessness is pinned to affirmation that they “fucked up” by “going down the wrong path” and therefore don’t deserve “or hard owned help”. People of the homeless community may have issues within their lives however they are still part of our community. People have enough issues in their lives and some of the members of the homeless community carry heavy cases of mental illness. On their road to finding a solution to their problem or recovery, the last thing anyone needs is to be treated like filth, teased, sneered at and judged. Through the interview conducted in one of my previous blogs the participant said they need to be able to help themselves. Through social exclusion, it is very hard for anyone to even want to help themselves. Through a simple change in attitude there is the potential of a cost free solution which will require no intervention from the Government.


Homelessness is a blanket term used to describe a state of being homeless. It is a highly misconceived term. From the examination above I have come to the conclusion that there are several key issues that are involved with the perpetual dehumanizing and alienating stigmas towards homeless people. This includes:-

  • Resentment
  • Lack of understanding.
  • Lack of empathy.
  • Natural Instinct, where a natural discomfort occurs.
  • Ingrained negative perceptions subliminally bombarded through visual media.
  • Desensitised and passive use of language.


As you can read, these causes are all negative. To create effective change, it will be important to flip these perceptions and feelings into a more positive sphere to engender optimism and confidence that the solution isn’t exploiting any parties in a tense economic climate. In post 9, I will further demonstrate how I have structured my emotive foundations.


The problem statement

Within modern urban societies one of the largest issues faced in motivated personal problem solving associated with practical and positive life choices comes from the dehumanizing and alienating factors associated with perpetuated stigma. This is a clear case within Homeless societies across the world, who generally make clear cut attempts to create positive personal change but are knocked back by negative societal attitudes and perceptions. There is a lack of hope, and a lack of optimism generating a sizeable wedge between effective solutions and the willingness to implement these solutions.


  • A sense of inclusiveness, removing any us and them barriers by creating a positive image of the excluded society group engendering a sense of hopefulness from the target audience.
  •  A “churn in the gut” feeling to create a sense of realisation that terminology is being used incorrectly and insensitively through possibly a twitter bot that will retweet stories sourced online from homeless people to people on twitter who use the term “hobo” or “bum” distastefully.


Collect the data from the twitter bot and create a mock installation room for an exhibition. The room can contain objects however every aspect of the small room must be covered in tweets that exemplify the idea of stigmatism towards homeless people or show that terminology is to being used incorrectly. This will aim to create an uncomfortable, invasive space. Outside there is to be a document compiled with sourced experiences and stories from homeless people taken from articles, blogs and forums to tie in with the experience and create a churn in the gut feeling.

  • Create a sense of empathetic understanding through immersive, empathetic experiences that may demonstrate that the state of homelessness can happen to anybody with the current global financial climate, highlighting that youth are most at risk to falling into a cyclical homeless cycle.
  •  Create a sense of understanding from non homeless people to find or contribute to a system that then engenders  either a sense of hopefulness and positivity from the homeless community, this would be done through some sort of service design or potentially a hybrid service and generative system design which would incorporate elements of both practices to come out with an outcome suited to 18-24 year olds.
  • Create a sense of frustration, irritation and loneliness by creating an empathetic experience that simulates the process of getting a spot to stay in a homeless shelter for a night.


Draft Proposal

Due to a lack of empathetic and knowledge based understanding instinctual precepts, stigma and alienation towards the marginalised group – the Homeless, runs rampant within contemporary urban societies. To create effective and long lasting change, these negative perceptions need to be shifted to achieve “help me to help you” attitude to ensure that members of the homeless community can retain a sense of hope to continue attempting to create their own solution.

I propose to pitch a hybrid design that crosses generative design and service design to educate both key stakeholders (non-homeless people and homeless people) within current urban spaces to perspectively achieve a depth of knowledge and a sense of hope. I would like to design a pack of Paste Ups which would feature an A1 black and white picture of an empty picture frame with space for the user to fill in with their own artwork. Included in this pack will be a carefully curated selection of stories from members of the homeless community to give the participant a greater insight into homeless life. The participant will then be asked to decorate the blank space in response to the material that has been read, send their posters back, which will be turned into a Guerrilla Poster series accompanied with Paste Up hashtags of services linked with the stories sent to the participant. The project will set up a system of conventions and steps the participants need to follow to achieve an outcome, but the outcome will rest solely in their own hands .

The project aims to create an outcome for both parties involved within this issue by taking into consideration the importance of an urban wall as a non human actor within the scope of homelessness. Brining a communal project to create hopeful, positive works to invade the often bleak and uninspiring urban spaces in which the homeless often reside (especially in Sydney). This would chef rom the power of colour on the human psyche as well as the “olive branch” metaphorical gesture these works present as an attempt by a non homeless person to make a difference to a homeless persons life.

Participants in turn, would gain better insights to what it is like to be homeless, thus creating a knowledge based empathy.This project will then aim to translate into a collaborative generative design in which the participant will be guided into creating bright, vibrant artwork to contribute to the “urban directory” of hashtags creating a positive link of contribution between both stakeholders. The final product pasted in the street, will parallel the feel of a decorated homely item and will aim to “brighten up” the bleak world of someone who is homeless weather they are on the street or are in transit from whatever shelter they may be living in. The addition of service related hashtags aims to extend a directory of options to homeless communities giving people options if their internet access is limited or if they are unsure of where to start.

Street art activism, is a youthful and creative response to various social issues that youth across the globe can get involved with and enjoy. Inspired by projects such as Kony (the idea behind it not the manipulative execution) as well as the “Anti Cancer Paste Up” campaign by J. Walter I aim to engage the ages between 18-25 to taking a less monetary approach to helping the issue of homlessness.

Young, M.  Published on Nov 12, 2015, ‘Homeless by design?”, Viewed September 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsZEXkCABCw&gt;.
Orsini,B. “The Unexpected face of Homelessness” TED x Macquarie University, Published on Dec 3 2013. Viewed in September 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w18ZuellVts&gt;

POST 9: Visual documentation of the brainstorming session


Filling in the Blanks


– Maria Yanovsky, 2016


Group brainstorming session, which in my opinion was not a great success. Not because the method was wrong, but the group collectively lacked clarity and drive. (Brainstorm, Homelessness and Exclusion Group, 2016)



Unfortunately, collaborative work is not always a success. For the proposal brainstorming session, there was a lot of confusion within the group as to what needed to be done. Because of a lack of clarity, the map itself is quite bare.

Initially the group attempted to write down solid ideas for everyone’s problem statements where four out of five members were dealing with an aspect of stigma towards the homeless community. This lead to numerous overlaps, stagnation of ideas and overall exhaust of creative thinking. It was not until towards the end of the session where a tutor approached the group, clearly noticing the struggle to populate the sheet of butcher’s paper that we realised the ideas we were generating did not need to be solid at this stage, and could be as bare as pinpointing the emotions we wanted to draw out from our proposed outcomes. These words of wisdom were a touch too late as the session was at an end and members burn out. However the session laid the foundations for post class creative thinking and brainstorming.

The one key aspect that this session did demonstrate was that a majority of the group wanted to highlight on the negative stigmatisation towards people in the homeless community. After much reflection, I felt that it may be intriguing if I explored this issue in a more positive angle. This meant I had to fill in the cracks of my research which had not yet fully looked at the issue from that perspective.

TedTalks are a valuable resource of gaining anecdotal reflections on issues. I had gone through numerous talks from people who had a part to play with the issue of homelessness within their community or were they themselves, homeless.

Key insight list created while watching a playlist of TED Talks  (Yanovsky.M, 2016).

During my small research session, I reflected on one or two key insights from each of the Ted Talks speakers. Optimism, hope and positive change were recurring themes. The most influential driver to the direction of my brainstorming came from the talk “How can I bring dignity to the homeless? “ by  Joel Hunt who said

“We can approach people with respect for themselves, we can offer a handshake, a smile a hello- their reception to our action isn’t our responsibility but as a person you tried. It’s about how we as a community of individuals can come together to bring hope.Smiles. Dignity can be restored through hope.”- J.Hunt 2014.

It was through this, I began to feel that shaming and blaming may not generate an effective positive reception from the target audience of 18-25 year olds as the message of the design may fall short from the scalding, condescending and potentially mocking tone some of the potential design responses could engender. I personally would’t listen to a twitter bot if I was misusing language in relation to homelessness.

From this exercise, I brainstormed a scope of emotions I may want to generate from my design proposition and began ideating in accordance with emotions that I felt may generate a stronger, more meaningful outcome all the while keeping in mind of my human and non human stake holder map.

From the brainstorming and further research I generated a list of roughly 9 ideas. For the sake of blog I have split up where I have placed some of these ideas, some are located in my blog post 8. From this list I picked a few that I thought could make for interesting design propositions then broke them down into examinations of their category, making sure to examine stakeholders and emotion as well as purpose. My two favourite options (shown above) are on polar ends of what I would hope to achieve. Focusing on emotional impact was an effective way of zeroing into my thoughts and generating unexpected ideas, either of which I would be more than happy to make.

Hunt, J.  Published on Oct 22, 2014 ‘How can I bring dignity to the homeless? TEDxSaltLakeCity’, Viewed September 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-g3x_cuK5SM&gt;.

post nine: brainstorming session

by zena dakkak
14222301_1779357662340142_8946789036485717954_n.jpgCollaborative mapping session


In our groups, we had 10 minutes to describe our possible design proposals and receive feedback. From there we would map and brain storm any ideas that surfaced or was triggered. If there’s one thing I’ve learnt throughout any process, there will always be strengths and weaknesses. This also applies to brainstorming sessions and collaborative work.


  • it was beneficial having multiple views about an issue or response. It allowed us to generate ideas and possible solutions for our projects that we could all use from
  • brainstorming sessions lead into discussions and could lead your idea onto a different, creating better and bigger ideas


  • we all had very similar ideas, which made it harder to produce different ideas for each person
  • the process was very repetitive due to the similarity of our chosen issue + ideas
  • we spent a great amount of time discussing an outcome rather than starting from the beginning of the process

post eight: the journey to the design response

by zena dakkak
14466997_10155251733218066_65398635_o (1).jpg
Individual brainstorm for 3A

My previous research consisted of the prevention methods of homelessness amongst the youth in the community. As I progressed into my research I gradually started to see the misconceptions, and negative views that society holds against the homeless community. To be completely honest I was one of those people who viewed and ignored the homeless people as I walked through Central tunnel. Through the final stages of collaborative mapping and research, I decided to focus on the desensitisation of societies perceptions of the homeless community.
My objective for this project is to open the eyes of society and break the barriers that allow society to view the homeless community as invisible. As well as my previous point, I hope to diminish the assumptions carried with the word homeless and the issues associated with society and the homeless community.

Individual brainstorm for 3B

five possible design responses:

  • Portraits of Invisibles. A series of portraits of real life people who have experienced or are experiencing homelessness. These posters will be situated in well populated areas that the target audience can view (university campus, train station, on buses as well as bus stops, shopping centres).
  • Pick & Choose. Interactive board that consists of stories of homeless people with hidden talents and information that would surprise the people of the public. 
  • The Mirror of Homelessness. Present a mirror that hangs from the ceiling. The person approaches it, portraying anyone can be homeless no matter who or what they’ve done in their life. 
  • ‘Have a Conversation with Me’. A table will be set up allowing people of the public to have conversations with people of the homeless community. This will enable people to communicate with them with the realisation that they are members of society just like they are. It will also create a positive outlook onto the homeless community that will bring hope. 
  • A Day in their Shoes. Attach a GoPro to a member of the homeless community to illustrate the harsh realities of society’s view on the issue of homelessness.

draft proposal

project title.
Pick & Choose.

practice type.
Generative design

the issue.
People of society, especially youth, don’t realise the complexity of homelessness. Based on face value, they judge the appearance of a homeless person not knowing anything about their background. In most cases, the homeless community have an educated background, a job and have hidden talents that everyone is not aware of because they are not given a chance.

the possible change.
In the hopes to encourage users to approach, help and raise awareness about this issues of homelessness amongst youths. This project will surprise and startle users to reflect on how they perceive people based on their looks rather than dissecting the multilayered assumptions society already holds.

the design action to support change.
To create an interactive board that allows users to pick and choose whether they think this person is homeless or not. This will be based on the real life stories that is evident on the screen. The users, not knowing the story is of a homeless person, then proceed to make a decision with their take of the situation. In some instances they will choose the wrong option which can lead them with the realisation that this story is based on a homeless person that is not described as their typical stereotypes.

POST 7: Collaborative Issue mapping

-Maria Yanovsky 2016

Throughout university working within a group can seem like a daunting task. However for the purposes of research co creation and collaboration have served some relatively good purposes in creating a broader understanding and enriching discourse of research topics.

(Homelessness and Exclusion Group Brainstorms, 2016)

The maps above were a part of our word association exercises. As a group we were able to fill two long study tables full of descriptive words that as a group of five, triggered ideas about homelessness. Gave the group a variety of choice when it was time to pick a set of 25 words. Working collaboratively here was useful in understanding the formation of language and bounce ideas off each other.

When visualised, this exercise is a chilling representation of how prevalent negativity is within our understanding of homelessness. Even in the flipped version that we did, there were still a large portion of negative words we associated with homelessness. (Yanovsky.M, 2016)

A Key insight that came from that exercise is the initial demonstration of how, even as researchers our collective word associations were predominantly negative. This may have to do with the fact that it is difficult to find a positive angle to talk about a negative topic. Yet, at this stage, I feel its almost hilariously contradictive that we are critiquing the prevalence of stigma, yet we are still so heavily angled at negative perceptions. Negativity perpetuates stereotypes and stigma. It may be useful, to start mapping from the angle of a homeless person and try to put myself into the shoes of anyone of the categories within the homeless umbrella.


Mobile Phone actors Map, this was done from the perspective of one person, and comparing it to the other maps posted in this blog, it is rather empty and bleak. This picture is a good demonstration of why working collaboratively in a group is beneficial (Homelessness and Exclusion Group Brainstorm, 2016).
Controversies issue map work in progress.
Re-Done controversies map, done for the sole purpose of re-familiarising ourselves with the initial brainstormed ideas and so we could add some more with a fresh mind. (Homelessness and Social Exclusion Group Brainstorm, 2016)
New Doc
Re-worked actors map that aimed to explore the terminology and labelling used to stigmatise members of the homeless community. (Homelessness and Social Exclusion Group Brainstorm, 2016)

Collaborative issue Mapping creates a broad spectrum of ideas that maybe overlooked if the task was undertaken by one individual. Looking back at the controversies map, as a group we decided that we as a group would focus on an aspect of homelessness that as individuals we would have overlooked. This being, the location of where homeless people sleep. Different research and perspectives created a more in-depth conversation of an expanded topic and enriched our understanding of the basic foundations of our issue.

Collaborative issue mapping also helps shed light on the “hottest topics”. For example, as a result of our mapping exercises which included word association exercises and the controversies map as a collaborative team we worked out there was a gravitation towards keywords that were used as labels for the homeless community. This demonstrated, through further mapping that collectively we all had an interest in the stigmatisation of homeless people indicating its popularity and resonance within a small body of researches.

Working collaboratively in a group helps fill the gaps in mapping exercises. This creates a detailed and rich contribution to discourse as the entire issue is explored from multiple angles. Within each mapping exercise there were degrees of knowledge each participant brought to the table. However as a collaborative group, we were able to fill in the cracks and generate a greater collected understanding which would have taken a lot more individual research to come to a conclusion to. Another intriguing aspect to compel this, is that these gaps generated heated discourse where contrasting view points came to the foreground. This was especially handy within the Controversy map exercise where we needed multiple clashing viewpoints.

However, one thing I did notice from collaborative mapping is that emotions, and perceptions can herd together like a flock of sheep. I found that in my own time, away from the raw, discussion based spaces, I was able to employ the findings from group exercises and create maps that are more tailored to personality and sense of humour.14466874_10157436051740332_1582625042_o

(Yanovsky.M, 2016)

As a result I made a playful illustrative map of some of the non human, object based actors, that stand out to me when thinking about homelessness. This was a lot more fun, then just thinking about words and text, and a quick little exercise of visual representation.

Blog Post 6: The Colour of Hash Tags.

– Maria Yanovsky 2016



For this exercise I chose to use two Social media platforms, Twitter and Instagram. Twitter is an online social media/networking platform where the primary function is so the user can send a ‘tweet’ of no more than 140 characters. These tweets can be seen and shared by other users publicly or privately and a user can hashtag tweets. Paul Gil has described Twitter as  Microblog where user can send short bursts of text. Because of the text limitation, twitter provides users with additional features so that  they are able to get more out of their experiences such as polls, the Twitter timeline, mention Tweets, pinned Tweets, lists messages and cards as well as click to Tweets to extend the conversations beyond the limitations of of one Tweet.
Instagram is an online social media platform for photo and video sharing. It allows users to take photos and video, and share it wither publicly or privately, attach hashtags, cross share over other social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr and search for content through hashtag filters. Originally a distinctive feature was that it shared photos confined to small square parameter  (640×640 fixed resolution and maximum 15-second limit) which the user can add filters and do small edits to their photos to achieved a “filtered effect”. Instagram was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 as a free mobile app for android and apple.
Instagram allows users to post photographs within a 640×640 fixed resolution or 15 second video limit, this almost forces the user to be their own curator to make, creative good use of the limited space, forcing the user to focus on what they want to show. Using “hipsteresque” filters to create visual appeal which allows iPhone photos to approach a similar quality as those photos taken on DSLR and edited on Adobe photo editing suit which can change the entire look and feel of the a photograph. This is made easy and readily available to a wide variety of people. Instagram also makes it possible for people to tailor their accounts to themes or visual aesthetics where they use the Instagram limitations plus their own to convey a readily updatable record of photography.
Twitter is an application that however allows users to generate quick, short “tweets” that are a short snap-shot of their own personal thoughts, opinions and copy line making them more poignant (when there is a point). Through twitters restrictions and added features twitter can easily transcend its own platform to other social media sites such as Facebook extending traffic. Entire Discussions can arise through embedding tweets with hashtags, coupled with 144 character limit makes it an interesting platform of discourse.
Even though I am discussing Instagram, a large part of my process involved the automated features with scraping data for Twitter. Initially, I used tutorial run exercises to delineate key words that I had some sort of interest in exploring. From those keywords I began running Twitter key word and hashtag searches using the advanced settings. This mainly involved looking at hashtags for the key words “hobo, homelessness, homeless, sleeping on the street, I have no home”. After having done my own analysis of the findings, which included extensive searches for further unique hashtags, I put the xml version of my Google spreadsheets file into two online data based analytics sites WTFCSV and Brand 24 to get a quantifiable and numerical understanding of my results. From all of these results and findings that I gained from analysing the verbal feel of Twitter as well as the analytical content of my searches, I began co-orchestrating hashtag searches on Instagram to get a visual estimation of what was being explored and shared without the influence of written text. I had done this in the hopes to get a visual feel for for the more “true to heart” colour, tone and mood on the subject matter.
Flow Diagram (Yanovsky.M, 2016)


In a previous post I explored the perspectives and cultural influences on the topic of homelessness through the use of casual interviews and data probing. One of the largest limitations I found was that these methodologies impeded the genuine responses towards the topic of homelessness as people became aware of the nature of the topic through my research and discussions with me. Social media platforms have helped to bridge the gap and have given me an insight to a larger network of unadulterated opinions, perspectives and bias’s that are in some cases, completely removed from ethical influences.
There were multiple intriguing results. My initial search consisted of data mining twitter for the use of the key tag #hobo. This was the word that stuck out to me the most during the word association exercise. The search provided a very stigmatised set of results with a large proportion of tweets found came from people discussing their appearance and aligning their disheveled nature to that of a hobo. These tweets often came from American Highschool students (probably because they were going back to school). But all followed a similar formula. This idea was entrenched further by fashion brands repetitively using the term “hobo” to describe their brand new products such as “hobo bags””hobo jackets”:-
 The colloquialism is generally associated with homeless people, however interestingly enough, the dictionary defined essence of the word is “a traveling worker”, which in the current context of modern societies is far removed to those who are in an impoverished state because they can not for what ever reason work. This data set was intriguing because of how much it showed how the term “hobo” has seeped into everyday vernacular and how desensitizing colloquialisms become.
Because these tweets were particularly negative, I decided that to gain broader results I would take a step back and filter the keywords homelessness, homeless shelter, I am homeless. Interestingly, comparing my analytical exploration of the data set returned and a computer analyser there were clashing results. Upon my own investigation I believed that the tonne of writing was negative and the outlook was grim, however when placed within a computer analytics site called Brand 24, the results demonstrated a contrasting idea.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

When I looked at the Tweets again, I noticed that a large proportion of the positive angled tweets were advocate based, with many organisations attempting to gain awareness of their campaigns through Twitter.
As interesting as that stream of ideas was leading, I decided that I still wasn’t completely filling in a certain gap which was attempting to find general public based standpoints and potentially positive empathies. 
This is where the search transitioned from Twitter to predominantly Instagram through their homeless related hashtags. I felt that looking at just Tweets had painted a picture that was too clear, and I wanted to keep my horizons slightly more open. Even though they were also a lot of advocate posts, the beauty of Instagram was that it provided me with a colour palette of thinking. Quite often as you scroll through any of the hashtags found on the list,the imagery is dark, urban, gritty, often very bleak to help convey meaning. A lot of thePhotography is black and white enhancing the impoverished nature of the subject matter and darker filters are used created a muted, darker tone in photography.
This creates a less alienated barrier between positive and negative perceptions. These flecks of gold, reduce the us and them connotations, bringing forth the visible homeless community to a more even playing field within human empathy. 
From these findings, I have found that data mining provides a hashtag “colour palette” and from these colour palettes the general feel from people on this topic is more effectively and truthfully conveyed. By exploring both Twitter and Instagram, I was able to draw conclusions from both sides of the coin.


Possibility One;

Concept Based Proposal (Yanovsky.M, 2016)
Rather than focusing on simply creating a visualisation of all these concepts. I took a dominating concept which was lack of empathy, and thought that maybe it would be interesting to combine data gathering and data visualisation into one. The twitter and Instagram scraping demonstrated that there is a lack of human centred empathy. This proposal is all about giving both the researcher and participant a “first hand” understanding of the problem. The interviewer would be supplied with a sheet of paper with a heat activated ink coating. The participant would be required to place their hand on the sheet and the interviewer would conduct a short conversation.The idea being, that the longer the conversation the darker the impression.Once complete both participant and interview will have a live understanding of the nature of empathy, with the understanding that the conversation will last for longer if the participant has a broad understanding,  and the participant will have a broad understanding if there is to some extent a deeper emotional engagement to the topic.  This would aim to poetically visualise the concept that I extruded from my data scraping. 
Possibility Two;
Second Idea (Yanovsky.M, 2016)
This next sketch is a possible data visaulisation for the dominant colours found in Instagram images. The idea is to chart the colour palette of a #homeless feed to chart the range and frequency in which dominant colours appear. This would hopefully aim to demonstrate that bright and bold colours are a scarcity when in visual conversation about this particular topic.


  1.  Even though the results from this data scrape have been interesting and some of the research possibilities could be explored into even greater detail, I would love to repeat this process analysing Reddit. Reddit has less of an activist angle and can often be a true reflection of opinion. For example, one of my first searches I came across a discussion on “What I would give a homeless person”. These sort of results would be more poetic.
  2. From this data scrape, I have learnt that the most passionate posts come from advocate campaigns, which generate interesting hashtags to be used within photography and tweets.
  3. There is a big “us vs them” issue happening, I feel as if my current research hasn’t resolved what non human factors are involved within this and what sorts of objects could create a relational connection between anyone who is homeless and people who are not. This is something that Reddit touched upon.
  4. Scraping for data is fascinating, and you need to go into it not knowing what you want to find otherwise it hinders with the creative analytical process. There are a lot of opinions that can be collected (ultimately without too much judgement). I would attempt this process a few more times, and try create a for more sets of data to try and find other angles to stigmatization. Maybe try some new keywords as well or statements that people actually use when discussing an experience they may have had with a homeless person.

Collaborative Issue Mapping

Post 7 by Alice Stollery

Collaborative issue mapping was an opportunity to expand my understanding of the issue of homelessness. My initial maps in post three were very detailed but also covered the entire issue, therefore there were areas that could still be broken down further. Co-creating maps enabled me to further interrogate areas of the issues that were less detailed or lacking on my initial map. It gave me the opportunity to step back and to discuss other perspectives of the issue with members of my group.  This helped me to break down areas that I was stuck on. I found some exercises were more insightful than others. There were times when the group lacked knowledge in particular areas which meant there was less discussion and engagement. However, on the flip side, there were other tasks that everyone contributed to, expanding our understanding exponentially. Having to articulate what I meant by the inclusion of certain actors also helped to solidify my own understanding.

Each task offered interesting and sometimes unexpected insights. Writing key words surrounding the issue was particularly beneficial. We decided that going through the alphabet and brainstorming key words for each letter together was very effective and as a group came up with around 200 words. Here you can see how the brainpower of 5 people makes for greater results than if I was at home completing the same task on my own.

Collaborative brainstorming of key words and associated words within homelessness.

Next we each chose 5 words that stood out to us. It was interesting narrowing these down and it highlighted the negative nature of the language we use to discuss the issue. This was something I had not really considered before. It was quite depressing to see these negative words collated in one place. I was particularly intrigued by ‘former-self’ and felt that a design approach that focused on the lives of the homeless before they were stuck by homelessness may be key to ridding them of stigma.


Key words that the group were attracted to or interested in.

Moving on, we organised these words into an emotive – factual scale. In the image below, factual words are seen at the top and more emotive words are at the bottom. This made us realise that the words surrounding the issue are no longer very emotive. The language and words we have used in our posts thus far are overused and the words often do not evoke emotion.

Emotive (bottom) to factual (top) scale

We then began writing antonyms of these words and the results were particularly insightful. Of course the antonyms were mostly positive words and when reading over them, I felt that these words could offer possible solutions to the problem. Suddenly, out of this overwhelmingly negative issue came words like; surrounded, acknowledged, visible, equality, clean, reinstated, facts, safe and understood. Perhaps these words were a skeleton for a solution. Highlighting what needs to change to move forward.

Positive antonyms of key words

As a group, we also created a more detailed map of stakeholders and their level of power in relation to homelessness. This expanded my knowledge in this area as my mapping of power in post three is very basic. Adding our key words to this map allowed us to see where particular words may stem from. For example desensitisation appeared quite a lot around the most powerful end of the map as this was connected with the media and government. Where as words such as survival appeared closer towards the bottom of the scale and the least powerful stakeholders.

Mapping of power within homelessness

From here we moved onto controversies within homelessness. This process was not smooth sailing and we had some conflicting views within certain areas and sometimes did not agree that particular areas could be considered controversies. Having multiple viewpoints at times took more brain power in attempting to organise information and account for differing views.

Initial controversies map which we then remapped to further understand.
Group process of creating second controversies map
Group process of creating controversies
Final Group controversies map

Mapping the controversies as a group was a good starting point, however I felt I needed to remap these myself to visualise my own understanding and to organise the information in a way that made sense to me. I wanted to break down each area to ensure I understood the controversy within it and the associated feelings. So below I have done a small remap.

IMG_0276.JPG copy

Finally, we then chose a particular controversy and broke it down into stakeholders. In this task it was helpful having multiple perspectives  as it added further layers, enabling us to go into further detail, breaking down the general terms we had previously used. We began doing location, however then decided on technology so I have created my own map of the stakeholders of location as I thought that was particularly interesting. The words underlined in red are the non human stakeholders and those that are not underlined are human. Surprisingly, there were far more non human stakeholders within the area of location.

Overall, collaboration and co creating issue maps was a valuable process that expanded our understanding of homelessness as well as providing support in breaking down the paralysing complexity of it. Working with peers meant that we were producing more work at a faster rate and as a result a greater overview of the issue, as well as greater detail of the stakeholders involved. We saw similar emerging ideas within the group and could thus recognise prominent themes within our research. We also challenged each others ideas and inevitably, our own. However while working as a group provided these benefits, I felt that it was still necessary to process issues and exercises individually after class to ensure my own understanding. This process of collaboration has informed my approach as there were a number of very interesting insights and perspectives that have come out of it.
Key insights include:
  • The negative nature of the language we use to describe the issue and the possible affects of using positive language as a solution
  • The notion of the ‘former-self’ the design response could focus on the former-selves of people before they were affected by homelessness in an attempt to rid them of stigma.
  • More emotive language needs to be used in the discussion of the topic as a number of words have been so over used that they no longer foster any kind of emotional response.
  • Mapping the power structure within homelessness revealed that the possibility for change may lie with those most powerful. ie the media and the government. Perhaps they could be a source of data.
Reflecting on the process and findings, it has come to light that the way in which we talk about the issue is incredibly important. Perhaps the issue needs to be approached or framed with a positive outlook.
“A positive attitude will lead to a positive outcome”
A possible response could be through promoting the people behind homelessness, delving into the lives they had before homelessness intersected with their lives. I could also look into using software to regenerate news articles, replacing all negative words with their antonyms, as this process for me was incredibly eye opening. These ideas are quite vague at the moment and I am not able to articulate effectively at this stage, however the collaborative process will certainly inform my approach to designing for change.



post seven: collaborative issue mapping

by zena dakkak

To further our understanding of the issue of homelessness, in week five our collaborative group continued the mapping process with several brainstorming activities to inform each other of our findings. At this point, the brainstorming activities and mapping exercises allowed the group to view each others insights and perspectives into their research.

figure one: emotive words relating to the issue

Our first exercise consisted of listing any emotive words we thought contributed to the issue of homelessness. With over 200 word results we then wrote all the words onto paper, reading them aloud as we go in case of any repeated words. We laid them onto the tables and individually marked our initials with the words we thought stood out to us. I chose the following following words:
– Survival
– Assumptions
– Alone
– Privacy
– Strangers

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Following, we listed the words individually selected by each group member and mapped them besides the most powerful stakeholders and the least power stakeholders. At this point we realised that almost every word related to each of the listed stakeholders.


We then moved onto writing the antonyms for each word that was selected. All the original words had a negative connotation to our issue, but as soon as we wrote the antonyms it shed a different light onto the issue and emphasised the importance of creating a positive outlook in order to progress with change.










To add to our group discoveries, we further mapped the controversies surrounding homelessness and then listed the human and non human actors and stakeholders involved.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.


At the beginning of this process, I didn’t really think this issue was so complex. Like many others I thought it was as simple as it is shown online or in the media. After doing some further research into my issue I began to have a basic understanding of the problems the homeless community are facing on a daily basis. Similarly, the group mapping process proved to be very valuable as we all had similar yet different views on the issue. With further research, our group was able to understand, map and flesh out a deeper understanding into the issue efficiently.

Working as a group demonstrated beneficial as it enabled us to listen and respond to each other’s perspectives on the issue. We were able to map many insights as a group rather than the little we had as individuals. As a group I found it interesting how everyone mapped their ideas. Each group member was helpful with their input and created a mapping method that will assist me in the future to create design solutions. Their views were very important and allowed me to thoroughly add additional information on the issue I would like to pursue.

As a result of co-creating maps, it has enabled me to realise the different views, hidden perspectives/ assumptions that if I solely working by myself I could not see. It has also allowed me to experiment with different approaches to map additional information that I have collected. I have started to seek different methods that I may not have considered.


post six: scraping web data

by zena dakkak

For this exercise I decided to focus on Twitter in order to gather data about the the publics view on homelessness. Twitter, created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone, and Noah Glass, is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short 140-character messages called “tweets”. These tweets can be shared and viewed publicly or privately. Additionally users can also add hashtags that will reach a wider audience when users search that specific hashtag. Users can read and post tweets and access Twitter through the website interface, SMS or mobile device app. Other additional features have been added to enhance the users experience when it comes to text limitation. These features include the Twitter timeline, pinned Tweets, polls, mention Tweets, lists messages and cards as well as click to Tweets to extend the conversations. 

Essentially Twitter is used to connect people of all ages with the same interests. It can be used as a social and professional platform where users voice their opinion, breaking news, raise awareness on social issues, business, educational tools, share their thoughts and feelings and experiences through photos or tweets.  


Data Scrapping Flow chart.jpg


At first I was very specific with my Twitter search which proved to not what I was expecting. 

Twitter Search
youth homeless social OR australia OR youth OR homeless OR smelly OR privacy OR people OR alone OR mental OR health OR depression lang:en.
Most of the results had surprised me as it validated some points that I had about social exclusion. 

Screen Shot 2016-09-18 at 5.40.19 PM.png

A lot of the search consisted on LGBT related tweets confirming that there is a vast majority of youths around theworld that feel socially excluded and are homeless. Although these results were interesting, it wasn’t enough data, so I generated a new search. To continue my research I excluded LGBT to see what the results will show. 
Twitter Search
homeless social OR youth OR homeless OR smelly OR privacy OR people OR alone OR mental OR health -LBGT lang_en –
This search interestingly enough showed reoccurring views regarding homelessness. One of which was related to the issue of refugee VS homeless citizens. Most of the tweets explored the problem that the country is facing choosing between the refugees and the homeless citizens.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.


Other tweets had a political view which relates to the new agreement for the US to send $38 billion to Israel. 

Dr. Craig Considine – @CraigCons
US govt. sends $38,000,000,000 to the Israel govt, yet this morning I walked my 3 homeless people on the way to work. This makes no sense.


Twitter search
homeless  “hobo ” social OR australia OR youth OR homeless OR smelly OR privacy OR people OR hobo -LGBT lang:en

Finally, drawing upon the exercise in class, we emphasised on the word hobo and its connection with the word homelessness. To further explore my research I added the word hobo to my search.  I wanted to investigate what hobo means and the assumptions and different views the public holds. To start off I searched the definition of ‘hobo’. It is defined as a homeless person; a tramp or vagrant. When narrowing down my search I kept the meaning in mind and compared tweets. 
Most tweets referred to their physical appearance, others made fun of homeless people, lacking empathy for the homeless community. 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Whereas fashion brands used the word as the title of a fashion object or reflected the the garments of a homeless person which in a way, mocks the homeless population, misleading and gives the word a new meaning in a way that society sees fit. 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

design proposition

In the next couple of weeks I hope to not only raise awareness about homeless but also explore the desensitisation of societies perspective about homelessness. I will be creating a service design that enables the people of the public and the homeless community interact with each other to break the barriers and assumptions of society.

summary points

  1. Twitter & twitter archiver is a great online tool to gather data and understand how a wider audience perceives a certain topic.
  2. When researching data, sometimes the simpler the better. Specific phrases can be very limited and one must be open to explore other options which can lead to an improved result.
  3. People’s views can be interpreted in different ways. Most of which are based on assumptions rather than facts.
  4. Very few posts reflected peoples motivation to help the homeless community. Rather it’s all talk but no action. (Did not see any movements or protests for the homeless community).
  5. People use the word hobo for their own benefits not knowing the true meaning behind it and lacking empathy towards the homeless community.






Primary Research & Public Perception

 Post 5 By Alice Stollery

Interview Objectives

Stigma and stereotyping have been recurring issues in secondary sources and the mainstream media throughout my research into homelessness. The societal shift towards technological dependence has also raised a number of concerns for those on the streets, as we create a digital divide, further marginalising the homeless.

With these positions in mind, I recently interviewed a university student to understand the relevance of these issues among the 18-24 year old age bracket. The primary objective of the interview process was to understand their attitudes towards the homeless and their circumstances, and to identify where stereotypes may have influenced their views and behaviours. By conducting an interview and establishing a design probe, I also hoped to ascertain the interviewees dependence on technology, such as their mobile phone and the internet, to ultimately identify areas where access to technology is a necessity for this age group. This would hopefully, in turn, allow me to understand where technology is failing the homeless, and in particular, homeless youth. My interview questions were limited and the interview was conducted more as a conversation to ensure the interviewee was relaxed and open in their response to the questions.


Throughout the interview process, I found that stereotypes were present in both their definition of homelessness as well as the perceived causes of homelessness. Interestingly, the invisible homeless were not accounted for within this person’s definition.

“Someone who doesn’t have a physical home to go to and a physical space to keep personal belongings. Those that are detached from society.”

This simplified definition of homelessness exposed the shallow understanding many people have of the issue. The invisible homeless do not enter our thoughts and we do not consider that the homeless may well be active members of society, working or studying full time, yet living out of the boot of their car or sleeping on a friends couch. By describing homelessness in this way, we almost detach ourselves from it, thinking that homelessness affects those that make poor life choices or who come from difficult backgrounds.

This simplified definition of homelessness may also be due to my lack of interview skills and the time frame in which the interview was conducted. Perhaps with more time and more probing, the interviewee could have established a more comprehensive understanding and definition of the issue. To improve for next time, I would perhaps break down this question into multiple questions as it is difficult to provide a complete overview of a complex issue in a single answer.

Feelings towards helping the homeless

The interview was also used to ascertain the interviewee’s feelings towards helping those in need. Seeing the numbers of people, myself included, walk past the homeless each day, I have always thought that a possible solution could sit within the actions of the passers by. I wanted to know the reasons why people chose not to help them, whether it was a case of not knowing how or whether there was less desire to help them due to a lack of empathy as a result of desensitisation or stigma. The interviewee stated that she was aware of the homeless, yet did not take much notice of them. Confirming the latter of my hypothesis. When walking past them, she realised that she pays more attention to their belongings and the items they keep, rather than focusing on them or their situation. She did not have any particular feelings when seeing them and due to this lack of empathy for them, felt that she had been desensitised to the issue.

Perceived causes of homelessness

When asked, the interviewee attributed the causes of homelessness to unfortunate circumstances and financial difficulty such as keeping up with rent or mortgage payments. She stated that she was aware that a number of homeless people had jobs and in this situation contributed possible causes to reckless or irresponsible spending and differing priorities from those not affected by homelessness. When asked if she had ever considered helping the homeless and if so what barriers she faced or what stopped her from doing so, she stated that not knowing how to help them played a large role in her reasons for choosing not to help them.

“When I walk past, of course I consider helping them but I don’t now how to help without contributing to the problem. Not knowing their situation and how to help them is the biggest barrier.”

This implies that people would be more willing to help or donate to the homeless if they were aware of the circumstances that lead them to be homeless. When asked about the challenges the homeless face, the interviewee listed social stigma and overcoming societies perception of them. I was intrigued by the fact that the interviewee was aware enough of this stigma to list it as a challenge yet not enough to challenge her own views of them.

The role of technology

Moving onto the role technology plays in her life, I asked the interviewee what daily challenges she might face if she did not have access to a mobile or internet technology. These included, waking up on time for commitments as she uses the alarm on her phone, emergencies, lack of ability to contact and stay in touch with friends and family and limited or no access to her uni work or online resources needed to complete her degree.

Design Probe

As the answer to this question did not give a comprehensive insight into the necessity of technology within her life, I asked the interviewee to complete a design probe over the course of the following week.

She was asked to document the role her mobile or internet plays in her life, including her fundamental and vital uses of technology during that period. Whenever she relied on her mobile or internet for work, socialising or emergencies,to name a few, she was asked to take note and record them. In designing this task, I hoped to identify situations when she would not have been able to complete the task without mobile or Internet technology.

A Visualisation of the interviewee’s design probe results. The larger circles act as clocks. Each use of technology has been plotted on the clock to show the time of day for each of the interactions. Each smaller circle is roughly 5 minutes in time.

The design probe results have been visualised above. They depict that for the 18-24 age bracket, mobile and internet technology are primarily used to maintain relationships with friends and family as throughout the week the interviewee spent 4.5 hours on Instagram, 3 hours on Facebook, 1.5 hours checking her email, 15 minutes looking up transport timetables and 1 hour making important phone calls. I was quite surprised by these results as they differed from my expectations. I would have placed more importance on calls or transport information rather than instagram, however this may be due to the particular week in which the design probe was completed.

These results are a good introduction to the issue, however, I would need to interview a number of participants in order to gauge an accurate indication of the primary uses of technology within this age bracket. As the interviewee also pointed out, this just so happened to be a week where she did not need to make any emergency phone calls, and other important phone calls were kept to a minimum.

Five Key Insights
  • The role of technology in the lives of youth may differ considerably from older age brackets, with significance placed on maintaining relationships and social connections through social media. Youth also do not make a lot of phone calls, which places more importance on online interaction.
  • I found that stereotypes were present in both the interviewees definition of homelessness as well as the perceived causes of homelessness as the invisible homeless were not considered within their definition of the issue.
  • There is evidence of a shallow understanding of the complexity of homelessness as well as an indifference towards those suffering form homelessness. This issue is not at the forefront of peoples minds and due to desensitisation and stigma surrounding their circumstances, people may not have empathy towards those suffering from homelessness.
  • People are less likely to help the homeless without knowing their background or situation. The causes of homelessness from a youths perspective include unfortunate circumstances and financial difficulty such as keeping up with rent or mortgage payments, reckless or irresponsible spending and differing priorities from those not affected by homelessness.
  • Social stigma and overcoming societies perception of them is considered a barrier for the homeless to overcome.

post five: harsh perceptions & realities of homelessness

by zena dakkak


Understanding perceptions and stereotyping is key in understanding how and why society thinks of homeless people in the way they do. For my interview I really wanted to dig deep and uncover the thoughts of people between the ages of 18-25. I interviewed a university student to further discover these issues and explore the issue of homelessness and how her views could impact my findings.


I began my interview with some basic questions to understand what kind of perspective April has on the homeless community. Ultimately when asked how she feels when she sees a homeless person she expressed her sympathy for them.

“I feel pity, and feel sorry for them. I share empathy for them, as they are very unfortunate”

To further investigate her perception of homeless people I continued to ask what she thinks the causes of homelessness is. Unsurprisingly, the answers that were provided were as I expected as I had the same views before I started my investigation into homelessness. Based on her assumed knowledge and what she’s heard, she stated that she feels the main causes of homelessness are mainly drugs and alcohol, family and financial issues. But as we progressed with our conversation I discovered she’d rather spend her money on herself because she’s uncertain of where they’d spend the money if she donated it to them. She expressed that instead of change they will continue to waste their money on unnecessary items rather than changing their lifestyle. But the uncertainty is that maybe they don’t know where to begin, or are too embarrassed to approach centres.

The conversation develops into the harsh realities the issue of homelessness and how the people of the public view it. As a university student that passes Central tunnel all the time, there are constantly homeless people asking for spare change or for food. Often ignored, they are perceived as invisible. When asked what her response is if she were to be approached and asked for help by a homeless person, she states that she carries on like it’s a causal day, oblivious to her surroundings and continues to walk.

“Usual casual day walks past, ignore than and decline”

Because of this repeated action the thought of her ignoring a homeless person quickly leaves her mind and does not linger resulting with her getting used to the action and moving on with her day.

As we discuss the issue of homeless in the short amount of time that we had, she conveys her thoughts on how society and the public are selfish and only like to think of themselves when it comes to complex and social issues like homelessness. The issue of homelessness isn’t often spoken about because society chooses to ignore and dehumanise them causing them to think that they are lesser than themselves. She communicates that they don’t concern us or impact our daily lives so as a result we neglect them and ignore their requests for help.

Design Probe

To further gather insight into the extent of the issue of homelessness around the city, I asked my interviewee to keep a tally of all the homeless people she sees on the way home. The results are as follows.

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday
8 7 5 10 6 7 6

The amount of people shown vary from day to day but show a significant insight into just how many people live on the street. This is a small indication to show just how big this issue is and that extra awareness needs to established in order to abolish these typical stereotypes.


Given the short time we had to conduct the interview, I was able to gather some insight into the issue of homelessness among the age group discussed earlier. Of course with more interviews I think I would have a better understanding into the perceptions of my audience.

As expected, my interview confirmed my thoughts of the stereotypes already established within society. After investigating into the mind of my interviewee it was clear that most of the communities do not know the struggles homeless people go through to survive. They take one look at them and quicken their pace to avoid any contact with them. Hopefully with extra research and findings, I hope to create a better understanding of homelessness and social exclusion for communities.


Five Summary points

  • Evidence that there is a lack of understanding when it comes to homelessness
  • Instead of assisting the homeless and have a better understanding of their situation, the public is more likely to pass by and use the money for themselves
  • Society is viewed as selfish. They only like to think of themselves when it comes to materialistic objects. Whereas the homeless view them as a survival tool
  • Homelessness is a complex and underrated issue that needs awareness to educate the public about this problem within the community
  • Stereotypes were confirmed while progressing with the interview

Post 3b Exploring Visual Representation

– Maria Yanovsky 2016


Illustration done for an article called “How Doing Good Can Help You Do Better” in an Investor Advisor Magazine. The artist is Joey Guidone as an illustrative commission. in 2015.

“When you do something for all the right reasons it seems to pay bigger dividends”- Nathan Bachrach.

There are quite a few articles that talk about the good deeds of others in relation to the homelessness crisis, this illustration is a perfect accompaniment for the gratitude this community often feels when people go out of their way to make their days better. It features a man in a day suit, bending down to cover a homeless main and his dog with an umbrella from the rain. Colour is used here to push the idea of kindness, warmth and hope as the section under which the man is shielded is a warm yellow in contrast to the surrounding shades of blue. It is interesting to see an animal being represented in this image as well, often articles only speak about a person, however, even on the streets of Sydney, there are many homeless people coupled with equally homeless pets, often keeping each other company. This image lacks any text including signs, however within the deeper thematic concern of this image, what is present speaks strongly. Coupled with the article, this image becomes less about the homeless person and more about the man in the suit who is “carrying out the good deed”. However once you read the article, it becomes apparent that what is not represented within these sorts images is the motivations and intentions behind the good deed. Despite the good intentions that this article is pushing, its place within an investors magazine is questionable as the article talks about the rewards of helping others shaking up the credibility of charitable actions. This idea comes through the report from post two, that examined stigma perpetuated by the belief people were doing a good deed, or the right thing. Causality and intention, becomes a topic of concern in this instance.



One of  the tents occupied by homeless people who live in Belmore Park Sydney – Photo By Adam Yip. Fund in a Daily Telegraph article “Moore is less for folk in greatest need: Belmore Park ten City a sorry part of Clover’s legacy” which talks about Clover Moore’s failure to respond to the forced removal of the Tent City because of a crisis state where Belmore park became a den of anti-social behaviour and a magnet for drug dealing by people willingly exploiting the homeless.


This image features a visual initiative by a homeless resident in response to the current issues in Belmore Park. Displaying various signs, covered in quotes and experts from the bible with mention of the human heart and judgment. This image is a direct representation of the thoughts and feelings of those who are experiencing street homelessness in Sydney who are being forcefully moved away from Belmore Park.  After reading several articles that explore stigma, this image resonates with the physiological, and journalistic explorations of one of the biggest issues as not just being the lack of Government intervention but the folly of human perception and lack of genuine empathy. As impassioned as hit image is, it only speaks on the behalf of some of the tent city residents of Belmore park and much less about the General Public that would have had to pass through there at the time. However on a braider scope, this image speaks of failure and the outward judgment of man, a concept widely explored in news articles directly and indirectly related to this issue.



Snapshot from an event organised by WISHIN (Women’s Information, Support and Housing in The North) to raise awareness about the escalating rise in homeless women- C. Deveny 2011

Presented within this image is a concept. The image is an outdoor installation of a home based from a car. The face is minimal with a small children set up, and some homely touches of a door side pot plant which leads the viewer to feel that it is from a female perspective. This image is representational of a large group of people known as the “hidden homeless” who don’t sleep on the street, but are still living in unstable and unsatisfactory living conditions such as cars, slums, couch surfing etc. This aspect of homelessness, is not explored within the media articles that focus on particular “visible” groups of homeless people. The image speaks volumes of the gravity of the situation, playing on the analogy of building a home within the confines of a small sedan. This image  is a depigment  of an aspect of homelessness that is rarely explored within the secondary sources, especially the media articles. This image builds to the complex definition of homelessness.



Cardboard Box Duvet Cover and Pillowcases. the Le Clochard Project by SZN is using profits from the sales of these cardboard-box-looking cotton duvet covers and pillow cases to raise money and awareness for homeless young people in the Netherlands – DIY Maven, 2008

This image is of cardboard boxes turned into pillow cases and duvet cover. In many articles, the importance of found objects is rarely discussed, as the discussions often go along the path of money, health, lack of shelter, social justice and hardship. Placing an every day object into something normally associated as warm and malleable to the contours of the human body,  creates a striking optical illusion with meaningful resonance.  On first glance this image appears to be a construction made out of cardboard. However imagery can be deceiving and upon further research Highly deceptive I discovered that it is an intriguing example of a creative initiative undertaken to raise money and more importantly, awareness for homeless people in the Netherlands.  The image extends the metaphor of a cardboard bed, a reality that many homeless people face.



This image is part of a three part advertising campaign run by Unicef China. Unlike many of the Australian articles, images such as this strongly push the notion of invisibility. Chinese boys were painted to blend in with the background to help remind the Chinese not to forget about the underprivileged children with what was back then, the upcoming Beijing Olympic Games. This image, even though from China, resonates similar themes found in many articles covered in my research. Invisibility, Isolation and being ignored are all articulated in the often impassioned writings of Authors on behalf of charities, or authors who are making a comment on the failures of their political leaders. Text within this image is used to help clarify the intention of this image, with the headline translating to “Don’t ignore me.”. The images are powerful and poignantly convey the topic of homeless children to its Chinese audiences.

“In just five days, UNICEF was able to raise funds totaling approximately USD 30,000 for the welfare of underprivileged children”-  JULY 5, 2008



Photograph by John Donegan
Photograph by John Donegan done for a Sydney Portrait Exhibition for an event at Town Hall called Sydney Homeless Connect. This portrait along with Five others, were paired with poignant quotes about the state of homelessness in Sydney and about being homeless.


“I’ve been homeless for about six months. My son comes down to see me and he stays in a motel with his mum, but it’s a bit hard. Luckily I still get to see him and spend a few hours together. I have type two bi-polar, part schizophrenia and OCD, and I came to the city because I thought there would much better support for my mental health here. I’m on a disability support pension but you can’t make ends meet. Hopefully I’ll find a flat and I won’t let it go.”

A large number of articles that can be read on the issue of homelessness often feature the stories of triumph and tribulation of a member of the homeless community. Their plight is to often break social stigma and show that circumstances aside, they are average people, no different than the homeless community with some sort of extenuating circumstance which has helped in leading their lives astray. Portrait photography such as this attempt to break social stigma that  according to John R. Belcher and Bruce R. Deforge “occurs in situations where there is unequal social, economic, and political power and there is an opportunity to label, stereotype, separate (us versus them), lose status, and discriminate.” It may not show the full story, however  it paints a picture that this demographic of people is no different from other demographics with a father who is in the embrace of his beaming son, levelling the playing field of interpretation.



“Homeless” by Joan Cornella  a Spanish illustrator famous for his unsettling surreal humor.


Black humour plays a critical roll within Cornella’s work creating a sickly sweet adaptation of a social issue such as homelessness with a dark, mutilated twist which scarily enough reflects how members of the homeless community feel when harassed on the street by Belmore Park security guards or through the persistent “under the rug” sweeping of their issues by the Australian Govenrment. The comic features a homeless man with a nosebleed, who calls out for help to only have a group of smiling men add sail to his wounds by partaking in “stacks on”, where the men lunge over each other sandwhiching the homeless man with the ground beneath. Cornella uses absurdity to highlight general human stupidity to expose and ridicule social issues. His work lacks any form of political correctness, therefor it is safe to say that this opinion can not be expressed (especially to this extent) within any sort of media article.



Photograph taken by Andrew Baldacchino  for an article titled “Living rough; winter is coming”- 2015.


Many articles that discuss the trials and tribulations that homeless people face in the plight for a call to action donation on the Streets of Sydney, Melbourne and even Adelaide will feature imagery such as this. Poignant as is with only the image of a homeless person presumably sitting still for hours, hoping for passers by to give him some coins, this image becomes more evocative with the blurred images of people bustling around him on a busy George street crossing. The scene is rather miserable with a wet, grey sheen of bad winter weather coupled by the ignored, invisible feeling coming across though the mans strikingly still contrasting form.


Homeless portrait series by Lee Jeffries

“I need to see some kind of emotion in my subjects,” Jeffries says. “I specifically look at people’s eyes—when I see it, I recognize it and feel it—and I repeat the process over and over again.”- Jeffries Jan. 26, 2012

Evocative images such as this portriat by Lee Jeffries is a visual art-form which media articles found online when discussing the topic of homelessness, would only dream to replicate. The images do not show much more than just the portrait of a homeless individual, but even with this example, it is clear that the photographer aimed to capture the raw emotion, through expert camera work and tasteful photo editing to draw out the emotion of his subject matter. High use of contrast helps bring out the rugged nature of the subject, not only making the details practically crystal clear but adding a dark dark, urban grit though the black and white.  Articles of course, attempt to replicate the confused, desolate, raw emotive quality within their testimonials, interviews and accompanied photo journalism. However, artistic photojournalism such as the caliber that this image is a part of, dig deeper through the reflection of the artist behind the lens who sophisticatedly frames his story.



Simple black and white illustration done by graphic designer Christopher Delorenzo.


“His simple monochrome drawings manages to convey a rich narrative in black, white and charm.”

Something that I have not yet come across in my research of media articles, are people posing as homeless to reap the rewards of charitable human behaviors. After finding this image, I came across numerous articles that explored (namely back packers) taking advantage of services designed specifically for the homeless. Simple and clean, this image features a potentially young man mimicking the use of a sign that a homeless person would normally use in the hopes to get an Iphone. Funnily enough this illustrator has captured the trend of the “hobo look” which this figure seems to be pulling off quite well, with his unshaven beard, beanie and from interpretation either stained or ripped clothes, cleverly contrasted with his stripped shopping bag, cup of Starbucks coffee and the use of word “home” on the signage.


The power of imagery is unmistakable. Powerful, well constructed, raw and authentic visuals evoke and resonate emotions, driving a deeper engagement and more profound change in behavior within one glance. With a limited amount of words the proliferation of images can quickly convey many stories.

However, the understanding of these stories should be kept in mind while looking and analysing any image source. Similar to the examples explored above, imagery like writing can be tailored to serve a particular purpose as either truth or farce/propaganda. When looking at an image it is important to analayse it for its visual devices to evaluate weather or not the ideas and perceptions will lead down an ethical path and that the source or subsequent creator is creating content for social justice . Context is an incredibly important asset and can completely change the meaning and perception of any image.


  1. Guidone, J. December 2015, How doing good can help you do better, Investment Advisor magazine.
  2. Yip, A. February 22, 2016 12:00am, One of the tents for the homeless who live in Belmore Park, The Daily Telegraph.
  3. Unkown 2010, Homeless Women, .
  4. DIY Maven Sep 29, 2008, Cardboard Box Duvet Cover & Pillowcases, .
  5. Ogilvy & Mather, Shanghai, China Posted by Marc van Gurp on 22 November 2008 in Poverty, Unicef China: Don’t Ignore me, .
  6. Donegan, J. 28 Jul 2015, 11:34am, Portraits of Sydney’s homeless community, .
  7. Cornella, J. Unkown, Homeless, Wide Walls.
  8. Baldacchino, A. May 20, 2015, Photograph for
    Living rough: winter is coming,
    Sydney Tafe Media.
  9. Lee, J. April 9, 2012, Homeless, Flikr.
  10. DELORENZO, C. Unkown, Untitled, 







Homelessness: Complex & Perplexing

Post 3 By Alice Stollery

Mapping the Stakeholders of Homelessness

Homelessness is both complex and perplexing, evident in my attempts to map the issue. Unless framing the issue from a particular perspective, it is difficult to grasp just how many actors are involved in the issue. There are a number of different people and groups that are both affected by homelessness and that can affect homelessness and all of them seem to be intertwined with each other. Before completing this mapping exercise, I knew that homelessness was a complex issue with a number of contributing factors, however, I never quite understood just how many stakeholders were involved. Below I have started to map out the issue. First I began by breaking the stake holders down into human and non human and I was surprised to find that there were more non human stakeholders than human.

FullSizeRender 38
Stage 1: Mapping the stakeholders of homelessness. The pink post its represent the Human Stakeholders, while the blue represent the non human stakeholders.

In the stage 2 map below, I have taken the information from above and tried to categorise it and organise the stakeholders into groups which  share the same values, or fall into a similar area of the issue.

FullSizeRender 36
Stage 2: Grouping the human and non human stakeholders into categories or groups that relate to each other.

In the stage 3 map, I have attempted at mapping the power of each stakeholder to work out who I would consider the most and least powerful when it comes to tackling the issue of homelessness. In this map I have simplified the stakeholders into the groups I would consider the key stakeholders.

FullSizeRender 37
Stage 3: Mapping of power within the issue of homelessness

An Image Archive of Homelessness

Could you please help?

Image 1 / A young homeless man sits at the intersection at Town Hall, waiting for a kind stranger to lend him a hand. (Sydney Tafe Media)

We are all guilty of walking straight past a homeless person without so much as a look in their direction. This photograph forces us to pause for a moment and really see them. It is a clear depiction of the invisibility of the homeless and represents the often unnoticed loneliness and suffering they experience. Each day, thousands of people pass by them, distracted by their own lives. While this photograph does not represent the complexity of the issue, it serves as a stark reminder of their suffering. It highlights how society has become desensitised to the plight of the homeless. Although not represented in the photograph, it forces the viewer to question how thousands of people can walk by without helping this man. It raises the issue of stigma and the barriers that stigma and stereotyping are creating in our ability to help those in need. Research into this topic has delved into the issues faced by the homeless, such as lack of access to technology, as well as food insecurity. However this photograph emphasises their plight without delving into any great detail. Why is it that we are more moved by a photograph such as this, than we are seeing the homeless on the street during our daily lives?

The Hidden & Invisible

Image 2 / A life size glass sleeping figure, created as a UK based Art project to raise awareness of the hidden and invisible homeless (Jerram, L)

This sleeping glass figure is a UK based art project that aims to raise awareness of both the invisibility of the homeless as well as the growing number of hidden homeless. The issue of the hidden homeless was something that was touched on in a number of articles that I have read. There are many homeless youth couch surfing or staying with friends or living out of their car. Youth that may not be sleeping rough on the streets but who still do not have a safe and secure place to call home. This art piece draws our attention to those we see on the streets yet take no notice of.. Yet also has a double meaning, representing those we do not see, that sleep on the couches of friends and in the boots of their cars.


Image 3 / Portraits of the homeless that took part in the Acknowledged project, a free exhibition at the State Library, created by Sydney Homeless connect. (Homeless Connect)

Acknowledged was a free exhibition held in 2013 at the State Library in Sydney. It consisted of the many faces of the homeless population, and included both their name and moving story, taking them out of a homeless context and painting them in a new light. The exhibition aims to raise their self esteem, photographing them in a way that changes their  perception of themselves as well as the publics perception of them. This photograph focuses on the people at the centre of the issue, it differs from the sources I have read as it starts at a fundamental level, however, it is also very similar as it aims to break down the stigma that surrounds the homeless.

Who? Where? Why? Homelessness in Sydney

Image 4 / An infographic created by the City of Sydney to visualise and summarise the results of a survey they conducted with 516 rough sleepers. (City of Sydney)

This image is an info graphic that outlines the how’s and why’s of homelessness in Sydney. It states that 516 rough sleepers were surveyed, of which, 82% were male, 17% were female and 1% were transgender. I have not come across statistics like these in my research so far, and I am curious to look into why there is such an imbalance in the sexes. Another interesting fact is the amount of time these people have been homeless, with the average being 5 years and 4 months. When I see a homeless person on the street, I have surprisingly never stopped to think how long they might have been there. Reasons behind their homelessness include; emotional, physical and sexual trauma, mental health issues, substance abuse or a combination of these issues. In terms of income, 100% of them live on less than $400 per week and 13% have no income to speak of.

Do Something for Nothing

Image 5 / Hairdresser Joshua Coombes spreading his ‘Do Something for Nothing’ movement’ by giving haircuts to the homeless. (Xplore Sydney)

This image shows a compassionate approach to the issue. Without prying into their lives or backstories and without truely understanding the nature of their circumstances, this barber helps the homeless to feel better about themselves. It is a simple yet effective approach to the issue and the beginning of the ‘Do something for nothing’ movement. This representation differs from those I have read in text sources as it seems free from bias or agenda and is rather, a genuine act of kindness.

Opposite ends of the Wealth Spectrum

Image 6 / Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull chats to Kent, a homeless Melbourne Man, about the launch of the new Ask Izzy App, the A-Z of homeless help. (SMH)

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has been photographed here with a Melbourne based homeless man.  The image depicts the two opposite ends of the wealth spectrum, with Turnbull in an expensive suit and shiny shoes crouching down, why Kent is sitting on the pavement in a tracksuit with a McDonalds coffee and unkept hair.

You’ve Crossed Paths with Homelessness

Image 7 / Homeless People share their stories through a dating app called ‘Happn’ (Buzzfeed)

This photograph merges homelessness and technology, exposing the issue through an iphone and a dating app. The dating app Happn is a location based app that notifies you when you have crossed paths with someone who also has the app installed. However, the happn team have now enabled the homeless to share their stories through the platform. When a user passes a homeless person, the app notifies them of their story. It is another example of how people are attempting to break down the barriers between the homeless and the wider public, ridding them of stigma and allowing us all to help those in need.

Youth Homelessness Matters

Image 8 / A Fact sheet on Youth Homelessness (Youth Homelessness Matters)

This Youth Homelessness poster focuses on the statistics surrounding homeless youth in Australia. It states that 42% of the homeless population in Australia are under the age of 25 with 26,000 falling into the 12-25 age bracket. Family violence,  child abuse or family breakdown account for the causes of homelessness in 70% of homeless youth and couch surfing is generally the first stage of homelessness experienced by youth. When compared to text sources, this poster is very general, and focuses on a particular group affected by the issue. It is more of a general overview of the situation and aims to raise awareness of the situation without delving too far into it.

Mapping Jasmine’s Journey

Jasmine's journey
Image 9 / A visual map of a young girls journey through homelessness (Youth Homelessness Matters)

This image is a visual map of a young girls journey into homelessness. It highlights how easily youth can find themselves homeless and counteracts the misconceptions that the wider public may hold around the circumstances of these peoples lives. Homelessness can happen to anyone and all it takes is a number of unfortunate events and lack of support and you could find yourself homeless.

The Couch Project

Image 10 / The Salvation Army’s Couch Project that aims to raise awareness of youth homelessness (Coffs Coast Advocate)

Homelessness is framed in this photograph from a different angle than many textual sources I have read. Without the text overlaid, the viewer may not even recognise this as an image of homelessness. It challenges our pre conceived ideas on the issue as the girl featured in this image does not fit within the stereotype that has become evident through my research. She has a roof over her head, clothing and what we may assume as a safe place to sleep. Yet, she is part of the the youth homelessness statistics included in the fact sheet above.


City of Sydney. 2016, Inner Sydney Registry Week 2015, City of Sydney, viewed 23 August 2016,<http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-support/homelessness>.

Jerram, L. 2015, Invisible Homeless, Luke Jerram, viewed 20 August 2016,<http://www.lukejerram.com/invisible-homeless>.

Polak, J. 2016, Do Something for Nothing, Xplore Sydney, viewed 20 August 2016,<http://www.xploresydney.com/do-something-for-nothing/>.

Sainty, L. 2016, Homeless People Are Sharing Their Stories Through A Dating App, Buzzfeed News, viewed 22 August 2016,<https://www.buzzfeed.com/lanesainty/homelessness-happns>.

Sydney Homeless Connect. 2013, Acknowledged: Sydney’s Homeless, Sydney Homeless Connect, viewed 21 August 2016,<http://homelessconnect.force.com/Home>.

Sydney Tafe Media. 2016, Living rough: Winter is coming, Sydney Tafe Media, viewed 21 August 2016, <http://www.sit.det.nsw.edu.au/sydneytafemedia/2015/05/20/living-rough-homelessness-weather/>.

The Coffs Coast Advocate. 2012, Youth Sleeping Rough, The Coffs Coast Advocate, viewed 21 August 2016,<http://www.coffscoastadvocate.com.au/news/youth-sleeping-rough/1434528/>.

Wright, T. 2016, Prime Minister Turnbull meets Kent and spruiks new website for homeless, The Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 22 August 2016,<http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/prime-minister-turnbull-meets-kent-and-spruiks-new-website-for-homeless-20160129-gmh25m.html>.

Youth Homelessness Matters. 2016, Fact Sheets on Youth Homelessness, Youth Homelessness Matters, viewed 23 August 2016,<http://www.youthhomelessnessmatters.net/resources>.

Post 5 Design-led Ethnography, Attempting to Separate Emotion and Stigma.

-Maria Yanovsky

Informal Interview

Primary research adds another layer of of detail that bias and agenda in writing can often wash out. Primary research can help determine raw, unadulterated emotion creating a broader perspective and a more rounded understanding of ideas, emotion and mood. Significantly, primary research gives a greater contextual understanding of the intended demographic.
       Even though the topic of homelessness is a global issue, understanding, view points and solution strategies vastly vary not only person to person, but across borders. Within Sydney there is a significant mix of Cultural personalities who’s views Segway from those often expressed in Western academic writing and media articles. Through a conversational interview process which involved on the spot adjustment to the angle of my research I was able to gauge the breadth of understanding on the topic of homelessness on a more personal level. Paired with an international classmate from China, I chanced upon the opportunity to begin developing a culturally led exploration into the views and empathies between an opinion caught in the middle of East and West values.
From this process it became ardently clear that cultural values shape a particular perspective on any given situation. The conversation generated consistent comparisons between China and Australia and determined where and why the interviewee was placing emphasis on certain beliefs and views towards issues and their subsequent strategiesThe interviewee experienced a sense of disconnect from the topic as contextually, this was something that only recently came to awareness recently due to a shift in geographical location.
“I have seen a lot more homeless people in Australia than in Mainland China, because in China homeless people aren’t a large issue. In China more people are disabled and they listen to people for advice. The homeless issue is paid more attention to here in Australia, but in China there is no focus.”
 This created a cultural divide within discourse. The interviewee was only able to create an understanding from what is visible in the street.  Interestingly, through secondary research it became apparent that what people see on the street “is only the tip of the iceberg”. The interview helped solidify the weight in which people place what is visible as the forefront of the issue creating a valuable connection between primary and secondary research.
         One of the most topical points of conversation was derived from solution based examinations for homeless people. The interviewee placed a heavy emphasis on education as being at the forefront of causality and the subsequent solution to the issue of homelessness. Expressing that,
“In China we have to pay to go to high school, no Government support for University. They are very poor and fro the Country Side and can maybe study at home, many people want social help and money to go to University. The parents don’t have the money because they don’t work. So everyone is expected to go to school”. 
Cultural value of success and culturally lead ideologies shaped the nature of the interviewees perceptions. When encouraged to discuss what the interviewee may do if ever made homeless, the interviewee swiftly delineated that was not an option in life.
“If I were made homeless here, I would have to go back home because there is no help for me here. Not everyone can go to school. I would have to find a job”.
From this discussion it became clear that the value of social obligation varied between East and West.   In fact,  education was held in such high esteem that when asked “what do you consider homeless”, the interviewee made the instantaneous connection between a lack of education and the state of being homeless.
“It might be a lack of education like university, they have no money to go to school. Maybe they can do a job, but they don’t know how to do this work and the company don’t want to employ them because they don’t have the education or the experience. I feel like the communities should give them more opportunities for job.”
This opinion is a stark contrast to those expressed by secondary sources, which, written in a Western perspective come to terms that prime physicality is not the only state of being people need to be in in order to complete education systems or even acquire jobs and interestingly is not the only measure of success.
        Assessing culturally driven personal perspective allowed me to see where this particular individual placed a heavier emphasis of importance. In secondary sources, this importance is placed on societal good will, yet through conversation with my interviewee the  importance shifted to the willingness and implementation of self help strategies. when asked how the interviewee would support a friend who is experiencing homelessness the interviewee exhibited personal life philosophies,
“Everyone have their own life, maybe my friend can change their own lives. The problem can’t be fixed with just this one time, we would make a survival plan to try and solve the problem to survive life.”
The idea of help comes across differently and the interviewee placed a heavier value on individuality and independence.  It became clear that within her personal scope the interviewee felt that  independence led to rehabilitation and the subsequent return to work which was soulfully more rewarding than charity.

Probing Task

Outline:- In alignment with the result of the interview, the participant is to walk around Sydney’s CBD and write a short description of what individual members of the homeless community are wearing. This is to be accompanied by a one word description of how this makes the participant feel which should be culled with a shape of their choosing.
Through creating a clinical awareness, it is hoped that this exercise may change the nature of the participants stigma by making the participant ignore socially driven stereotypes and bring to the forefront natural emotion and reactions.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The results did not completely eliminate stigma and ster. The participant still took note of the negative aspects of their appearance and connected these with various negative emotions. However, the value of this exercise come in succession. The more probes the participant did the more empathetic emotions elucidated. From worrying about general appearance and how it reflected a state of discomfort, the participant began to empathise with the what was observed and instead of channeling how the participant was feeling, there was empathetic channeling where the participant began to consider how the subject may be feeling.
Interestingly, most of the examples returned are male and are predicted to be in their middle ages. Many of the example noted are also wearing dark or muted colours, generally comfortable clothing. In each example returned there were unique splats of colour that drew the participants attention, from he colour of the blanket they use, to the unique colouring of soles in their shoes.
The most interesting result, is the emotive paired shape. Despite the participants increased emotional connectivity to the subject matter, the participant had not once listed a comfortable shape. Each example provided had either sharp edges, unsure shapes, acute corners or a mix of all.
The task is a mixture of failure and success. Even as a clinical process it failed to remove a clinical stigma extracted even from written expression and visual interpretation. However, through this it managed to show that some of these stigma’s may be developed through personal human instinct to what a person may feel comfortable to be in the presence of. In reflection, it would be interesting if this task was conducted in a more guerrilla format where I would accompany the participant and record their own natural reactions to what they see and what emotions they may or may not exhibit. This particular probe brought the the topic of homelessness to the forefront of the participants mind, actively getting them to think about the topic. Stigma, is more commonly presented in natural unhindered behaviour where “the truth comes out”.

Five Point Summery

  • Cultural Values shape the perception and acceptance of situations such as homelessness.
  • Cultural parameters create differences in weighting certain values. Different cultural groups measure success differently therefore societal expectations vary. In Australia education is not the be all end all where as in China is a large part of success and failure.
  • Culturally driven personal perspectives are an intriguing demonstration of life based ethos’s which can serve as an interesting angle to problem solving strategies.
  • Emotion can be built through repetitive viewing and demonstration
  • Stigma may not just come from social contract. Stigma may be developed through instinctual reactions towards another individual. Generated through discomfort and the end to be safe.

{post 2} the plight or flight of displaced youth.

two academic writings. brief analysis. reflection. judith tan.

Woman jeans and sneaker shoes
(IBB 2015) Youths who become homeless often feel a sense of self-protection and empowerment in their choice to leave home.

After reading through online newspaper articles, I moved on to search for academic writings in order to delve a little deeper into the issue of homelessness. I have chosen two articles with the same focus in mind of transitioning to homelessness. This time however, instead of covering the general homeless population, I have narrowed down the demographic focus to look into how youths become homeless.

Continue reading “{post 2} the plight or flight of displaced youth.”

Ask Izzy: Helping the Homeless find their way

Post 4 by Alice Stollery

Disruptive media is a design studio based in Melbourne that collaborates with community-focused organisations such as not-for-profits and community services, to tackle social issues across a number of different sectors. They recently teamed up with Infoxchange, a not-for-profit social enterprise specialising in creative technological solutions for social change. Disruptive Media and Infoxchange collaborated to create the app Ask Izzy, a health, welfare and community services directory that bridges the gap between support services and those affected by or at risk of homelessness. It makes these services more accessible “empowering people to take control, easily find location-based services, and get the support they need” (Disruptive Media). The app was launched in January of this year and its success was evident within the first month, with over 31,000 people using it to access essential services. Not only does Ask Izzy act as an essential tool in providing shelter and support to the homeless, but it will also inform government choices about future investments through the anonymous data collected from the app and website. This data will enable them to determine the demand for particular services.

Disruptive media worked on naming and branding the app, while Infoxchange focused on the app’s development along side Google, REA Group and News corp. The project was a result of a Google Grant received by Infoxchange and stemmed from a directory of homelessness that they had already created called ‘service seeker’. Ask Izzy is essentially a rebranding and repositioning of this directory, using insights gained from research, making it more accessible and putting it in the hands of those in need.

To achieve this, the above organisations worked closely together with people experiencing homelessness and those working to provide support to them, to understand the issues they face on a daily basis. This project falls within an emergent practice context as it is a form of service design. The issue they discovered, this disconnect between the homeless and service providers, came out of a number of ethnographic research methods conducted by the organisations. The foundation of their design strategy was to have a comprehensive understanding of the issues faced by people experiencing homelessness. They conducted these ethnographic studies to both identify the issue of accessibility of services and to gain critical insights that directly informed their design decisions.

The workshops they held, found that avoiding common stereotypes was an important consideration within the branding. Stereotyping is a recurring theme throughout my research and it is interesting to see how it has also played an important role within a design context. The workshops highlighted the ease at which people can find themselves homeless. The fact that homelessness can affect anyone, meant that the name and branding of the app needed to appeal to a wide audience, including those who may not fit into the stereotypical view of homelessness, or interestingly, those who do not consider themselves homeless. Had the branding been directly associated with homeless services, those who do not consider themselves homeless, such as couch surfers, would be less likely to use the app, hindering them from accessing essential support services due to stigma. As a result, research identified that the name should rather be friendly and approachable. Thus, ‘Ask Izzy’ was chosen, as it rids the app, and users, of the stigma associated with the label ‘homeless’.

Through my initial research in the mainstream media, (although not included in my first blog post), I noticed a disconnect between those affected by homelessness and the services designed to help them. I thought it would be interesting to look into why this disconnect occurs, whether it is a conscious choice not to use the services or an inability to access them. Throughout my secondary research into scholarly articles I began to understand the role technology plays in the lives of the homeless and I was surprised to learn that 95% of homeless people own a mobile handset. So it’s really interesting to see how this design studio have uncovered these insights through researching the issue, connecting the two to create a technological solution to the problem. It was thought-provoking to learn through Disruptive Media’s research, that a number of homeless people do not use these services as they do not consider themselves homeless. I was not aware of this and had not considered framing the issue in this way. I would be interested in further investigating how services are being designed for people who fall within this category. Perhaps reframing how we approach those who do not consider themselves homeless could work as a preventative measure or early intervention to decrease the numbers of those who find themselves with no where left to go.


Ask Izzy. 2016, Ask Izzy, viewed 22 August 2016,<https://askizzy.org.au/>.

Design 100. 2016, Ask Izzy: The A to Z Directory of Homeless Help, Design 100, viewed 22 August 2016,<https://design100.com/MEL16/entry_details.asp?ID=14914&Category_ID=7387>.

Disruptive Media. 2016, Ask Izzy: The A to Z Directory of Homeless Help, Disruptive Media, viewed 22 August 2016,<http://disruptivemedia.com.au/ask-izzy/>.

Gillet, C. 2016, Ask Izzy App connects homeless to food, shelter and health services, Herald Sun, viewed 22 August 2016,<http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/askizzy-app-connects-the-homeless-to-food-shelter-and-health-services/news-story/bfae67275552be421af4dd54bfd575a6>.

Infoxchange. 2016, Homeless Help, Infoxchange, viewed 22 August 2016,<https://www.infoxchange.org/au/community-programs/homeless-help>.

Millar, S. 2016, Ask Izzy – New site to help the homeless, Real Estate, viewed 22 August 2016, <http://www.realestate.com.au/news/ask-izzy-new-site-to-help-the-homeless/>.