Interview and Probe about the association between environment and obesity & healthy living

Blog Post 5: Approaches to design for change, design-led ethnography

Written by Hyunjoung You

 

I have conducted the interview about obesity & healthy living to my specific issue to my interviewee in the class. There are five findings from this primary research.

 

1.  Interesting issue about obesity & healthy living

The interviewee was more interested in right diet than other issues that are related to obesity and healthy living. She thought that people do not have enough knowledge what diet is good for their health and preventing from being obese. Therefore, she believed the early education is important so people can use to have proper diets.

Through her answer, I realized people were aware of the importance of right diet. However, there are no opportunities that people learn which diet is better properly. I thought children education would be helpful to solve future problem is being obesity to children.

 

2. Major contributors of obesity & healthy living

Modern culture & busy life

The interviewee said it is one of major contributors to obesity & healthy living. Many people do not have time to do exercise, and cook at home. Today people prefer eating outside or buying takeaway food due to convenience. Also, some people pursue their convenience too much; even though the distance is short, some people choose driving car rather than taking walk.

Advertisement industry

The interviewee talked about food advertisement as well. She could see lots of soft drink like Coca Cola or junk food ads, but it is hard to find the advertisements for alcohol, soft drink or food by healthy companies.

Education

She pointed out the lack of education about right diet in childhood. Children education is important to prevent from being obesity. She believed that eating habit could make people being healthier or not.

Three contributors that the interviewee came up with obesity & healthy living were all appropriate. Besides, I found three of them are related to my issue. It seems like busy life tend to make people living sedentary lifestyle. In addition, the environment they live in has more unhealthy food shops than healthier food shops. Therefore, it might bring about a limited choice of diets to people.

 

3. Active urban design prevents obesity or not

My interviewee was not sure if active urban design could prevent obesity. However, she was certain that it could help public health in general; more green spaces and better recreational areas can encourage people to exercise more. She also gave me the example that is dedicated urban bicycle lanes are really helpful for people who are thinking about cycling especially in Australia, as it can be dangerous to cycle on roads. Additional parks and green spaces are also good for promoting the community to do physical activities.

My interview has a broad understanding of the association between our environment and public health. This shows how our environment impacts on our health.

 

4. The possible opposition to active urban design

The interviewee thought there would probably be opposing views of creating active urban design since everyone would always have different opinions. However, she did not think that the disagreement was based on whether or not they wanted to have health promoting urban design. The disagreement might be going to be about what kinds of urban design in specific that is needed in the area. She said there would be concerns, for example, do we want to build a cool playground for kids or build a public gym? She was sure this was the type of opposing opinion happened all the time.

I realized that I overlooked the thing that my interviewee pointed out. It was nice time to think about other issues about this solution.

 

5. The ideas for preventing obesity

She mentioned about children education again, but she thought urban design and children education could be connected. For example, growing plants or fruit by children in specific areas to help them have right diets.

I thought it was good idea combining both ideas together. Hence, children can be familiar to eating vegetables and healthy food, and some parts of urban design create by public.

 

Probe

After the interview, due to my issue that I have looked at so far is about the association between environment and obesity & healthy living. Therefore, I wondered the environment around her in particular to food industry. I asked she usually cook at home or not, and then, she said that she normally ate food outside. Therefore, I asked her to capture the map of her place to see what kinds of food industry are located in.

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The map around building 6 and interviewee’s house (http://maps.uts.edu.au/map.cfm)

 

This image was from my interviewee, and she put the red lines on the place where she normally went to eat. She also mentioned there are some missing shops like KFC, sushi shop, and lots of takeaway food shops between building 6 and central station such as Thai, Chinese, and sandwich shop, and so on. She lives in UTS accommodation that is why she usually has food around there. She added there are not much healthy food shops compares to sugary or junk food shops; therefore, she does not have many choices to choose healthier foods.

Through this probe, even though I looked at the food environment of small area, I could find that many people are already exposed to those kinds of food industry. The way to prevent it is only a change of our environment for people. We need to choose healthier choices easily in our environment, and it can be happened by our acts. It might be one of our responsibilities; everyone should be aware of it, and act now.

After primary research, I could see what is difference between primary research and secondary research. When I used secondary research to write previous blog posts, secondary research includes existing research, and involves analysis or literature reviews. However, primary research, especially conducting interview and probe by one person was personal. Thus, I could get diverse perspectives of the issue by different people; they have different opinions and ideas, so it is really helpful to come up with the thoughts that I could not have.

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Mapping and image archive

Blog post 3. Mapping and image archive

Written by Hyunjoung You

 

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Group mapping of Obesity & Healthy living in class

 

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Environment we live in (Stakeholders / Values) mapping in class

During the class, our group created the mapping for issue, which is related to obesity and healthy living. Also, we made stakeholders mapping; we divided into 2 sections for stakeholders like human and non-human. This exercise helped to build the knowledge about diverse issues are associated with our topic (obesity and healthy living). In later class, we wrote down the words are linked to our topic. We shared each group words, and checked what they were interested in the words. For our group words, the most interesting word was ‘Active design’, and then, ‘Healthcare professional’, ‘Public health’, ‘Environment’, and ‘Healthy lifestyle’, and so on. I realized most of words are related to my specific issue that is the association between active urban design and obesity. Therefore, if I keep looking at this issue and trying to make better ideas, it would be definitely interesting to many designers and design students. In addition, there are many interesting words from other groups what I could not come up with even few words describe my issue properly. Thus, it was useful exercise to get the point of what I have to go with my issue.

 

10 Image Archive

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Image 1. Put the Smartphone down: social media use and sleep disturbances linked

First image includes the guy who grabs his mobile cannot fall in sleep properly. This describes using smart phone for a long time brings about sleep disturbance. Nowadays, modern people often use social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, etc. They use their mobile to keep checking social media, and it is still happened before people go to bed. Deep sleep is necessary to good health; therefore, this image shows technology is also one of distractions to healthy living.

 

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Image 2. Dove Real Beauty campaign

In post 1, I already have written about the issue, which is related to this image. This image aims to women have the confidence with their natural bodies. However, the article what I read in post 1 insists that ‘real’ from that slogan could be problem because there are no standard for normal and real body. Also, it highlights these kind of campaign might lead to negative effect on public’s lifestyle and eating behavior. Therefore, this image is controversial even the purpose is good.

 

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Image 3. Disease trigger

Right diet is one of significant factor to healthy living. As you can see this image, today many young girls have wrong beauty standard, for example, skinny is prettier. They become being very self-conscious, and they cannot be satisfied with them. It causes eating disorder such as overeating or anorexia; and this image is one of example showing anorexia successfully.

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Image 4. Are You Eating Your Feelings?

The person eats the cookies with the different feelings in this poster. It shows people can overeat due to their feelings especially when their feelings are sad, tired, stressed, depressed, lonely, or anxiety. As you can the words in the cookies, all words represent negative feelings. The poster emphasises that people should stop overeating by bad feelings; they should find other appropriate solutions except overeating to make them feel better.

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Image 5. How Coca-Cola, Britvic and Innocent are tackling the sugar issue

This image shows how soft drink has lots of sugar successfully. Therefore, it helps people being aware of it, and people can avoid drinking soft drink much. People are easy to addict sugar, so reducing sugar intake is really important thing to be healthy and avoid being obesity. This image is also used to support ‘sugar tax’ that I already mentioned in post 1; 20% tax on sugary drinks and sweets to help people reduce their daily sugar intake.

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Image 6. Sedentary Lifestyle is a Health Risk

The potato is on the couch in this image. This points out an increase in sedentary lifestyle today. Many people prefer convenience; therefore, people tend to find easier ways when they travel, go or do something. They do not have enough physical activities, so it would bring about health risk such as heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, and high blood pressure. Although this image describes sedentary lifestyle, it will lead to awareness to people.

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Image 7. Urbanism as a public health issue: Oklahoma City’s battle with obesity

The silhouette of obese person is in front of many junk food shops. This illustration highlights urbanism as a public health issue, and it also says that urban environment should change for public health. I posted the design guidelines about this issue in post 4. This image shows the real environment that affects public health negatively. If there are less unhealthy food shops in our environment, it will definitely helpful to public health. However, there would be many objections by especially junk food and sugary food industry.

 

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Image 8. Killer at Large

This image is a documentary poster. It includes the fries in the cigarette packet. People recognize how smoking cigarettes is harmful for the health. The image uses that common sense to let people realize how junk food is also as bad for our health as smoking.

 

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Image 9. What are you letting your child put in his mouth?

This image is United Way + American Heart Association joint campaign poster. The poster has gun shape of the chocolate with the texts below it. It points out children obesity can be prevented by parent’s right diet education. The visual aspect and the phrase are appropriate to describe how right diet is important to children.

 

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Image 10. Obesity is Suicide

This image is a campaign poster to raise awareness of obesity. This poster might be sensational, but it will make people to think that obesity affects their health negatively. Thus, people try to choose healthier choices, not unhealthy things.

 

 

Reference

Brown, V. 2015, Dove Real Beauty campaign, news, viewed 11 August 2016, <http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/beauty/face-body/study-claims-plussize-models-may-contribute-to-obesity-epidemic-and-unhealthy-lifestyle-choices/news-story/9742de8fb4ef04633b2a67681bf5d376&gt;.

Chill Out Point, 2009, “OBESITY IS SUICIDE” AD CAMPAGIN, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://www.chilloutpoint.com/art_and_design/the-best-of-ad-campaigns.html&gt;.

Ellis, M. 2016, Put the Smartphone down: social media use and sleep disturbances linked, MNT, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305665.php&gt;.

 Greenstreet, S. 2008, Killer at Large, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0903660/&gt;.

Hamid, S. 2010, United Way + AHA Anti-Obesity Campaign, Behance, viewed 20 August 2016, <https://www.behance.net/gallery/United-Way-AHA-Anti-Obesity-Campaign/438465&gt;.

Hochberg, A.T. 2015, Urbanism as a public health issue: Oklahoma City’s battle with obesity, Archinect, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://archinect.com/news/tag/206280/obesity&gt;.

Obesitysoc, 2015, Are You Eating Your Feelings?, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.obesitysoc.org.uk/images/Press_2015/Website2015/obesity_poster_eat_your_feelings_2.jpg&gt;.

Roderick, L. 2016, How Coca-Cola, Britvic and Innocent are tackling the sugar issue, Marketing Week, viewed 23 August 2016, <https://www.marketingweek.com/2016/01/27/how-coca-cola-britvic-and-innocent-are-tackling-the-sugar-issue/&gt;.

Stark, S. n.d. Disease trigger, A Stark Reality, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.astarkreality.com/2014/10/religious-fasting-can-exacerbate-eating.html&gt;.

Sullivan, R. n.d., Sedentary Lifestyle is a Health Risk, Sci-Unison Fitness, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.sci-unisonfitness.com/sedentary-lifestyle-health-risk/&gt;.

 

 

 

 

Post 3 – Global Warming Mind Map: Social Value Perspective

By Vicky Lam

MIND MAP

This mind map of global warming covers the human (stakeholders) and non-human (environment) aspects.

Mindmap

TEN IMAGES

I include these images mainly on scientific and statistical data since they can help us to visually grasp the trends, disparity, and hence impacts of global warming and climate change on our environment and economy.

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Image 1: Global abatement cost curve beyond business-as-usual – 2030 (Dauncey G., 2009, The Climate Challenge: 101 Solutions to Global Warming, New Society Publishers, Leicester, p.71)

This image compares relative abatement costs of different mitigation measures, which is useful to understand the financial impact when considering various mitigation options for reducing carbon emissions.

 

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Image 2: Global Temperatures from 1860 to 2000 (“Global Warming and Climate Change”, The Cheaper Petrol Party, viewed 7 August 2016, < http://www.cheaperpetrolparty.com/Global_Warming.php >)

This image compiled by Climate Research Unit of University of East Anglia and Hadley Centre of UK Meteorological Office records global temperature change from 1900 to 2000 as around 0.57 degree Celsius.

 

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Image 3: Global Fossil Carbon Emissions (“Global Warming and Climate Change”, The Cheaper Petrol Party, viewed 7 August 2016, < http://www.cheaperpetrolparty.com/Global_Warming.php >)

This image shows the sharply rising trends of global fossil carbon emissions after 1950 due to fossil fuel burning. Cement production releases carbon dioxide resulting from thermal decomposition of limestone to lime.

 

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Image 4: Recent Sea Level Rise (“How rising sea levels will affect US: Miami and New Orleans underwater by 2100”, Zime Science, viewed 7 August 2016, <http://www.zmescience.com/ecology/climate/sea-level-rise-global-warming-states-043232/ >)

The data in this image indicate a sea level rise of around 18.5cm from 1900 to 2000.

 

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Image 5: Annual Carbon Emissions by Region (Finn M., “Israel Cuts Carbon Emissions to Boost Economic Success”, posted 11 April 2016, Science World Report, viewed 7 August 2016, <http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/38146/20160411/israel-walmart-cuts-carbon-emissions-to-boost-economic-commercial-success.htm >)

This image shows the comparative rise in annual carbon emissions by regions, data source from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre. China acknowledged in 2010 it was the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases, surpassing USA who is the top emitter of the world in 20th century. Carbon emissions is proportional to a region’s wealth and hence its energy consumption.

 

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Image 6: Global Warming Predictions (“Global Warming Predictions Map”, 2016, Wikimedia Commons, viewed 7 August 2016, <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Warming_Predictions_Map.jpg >)

This image shows predicted distribution of temperature change from Hadley Centre HadCM3 climate model, and plotted colors depict average change is 3oC, with predicted change of 1.4 to 5.8oC from 1990 to 2100. Continents warm more rapidly than oceans (due to lower heat capacity of landat ) in the model. The lowest predicted warming is 0.55oC south of South America and the highest is 9.2oC in Arctic Ocean, indicating largest carbon emitters located in northern hemisphere.

 

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Image 7: Fossil Fuel Usage per Person (“Fossil Fuel Usage per Person (Global Warming)”, what-when-how, viewed 7 August 2016, <http://what-when-how.com/global-warming/fossil-fuel-usage-per-person-global-warming/>)

This image shows the comparison of fossil fuel consumption per capita for the top 20 largest populated countries. Large range indicates disparity between the rich, industrialized and poor/developing countries. Australia’s fossil fuel usage per capita can be very high but not on the list due to its small population.

 

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Image 8: Economic Efficiency of Fossil Fuel Usage (“Economic Efficiency of Fossil Fuel Usage”, Exploring the Environment, viewed 7 August 2016, <http://ete.cet.edu/gcc/?/resourcecenter/slideshow/3/51 >)

This image shows how efficiently the 20 largest economies convert fossil fuel usage into wealth (tied to availability of fossil fuel energy sources) in terms of the ratio of gross domestic product generated to number of kg fossil fuel carbon released. France and Brazil ranked top two because they heavily rely on alternative energy source, hydroelectric and nuclear power while other countries rely on coal as energy source.

 

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Image 9: Global Trends in Greenhouse Gases (Verheggen, B., 2012, “Global Trends in Greenhouse Gases”, Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change, 2nd Ed, SAGE Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, California, Vol. 3, p.1549)

These images illustrate the trends in major greenhouse gas concentrations from 1970 to 2010. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide show continuous rise that they account for 99% of global warming potential in the past 50 years. CFC-11 & 12 show gradually drop after Montreal Protocol that limited their release to protect ozone layer.

 

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Image 10: Australians’ Thoughts about Climate Change 2010 – 2014 (“54% of Australians skeptics of man-made global warming, 80% don’t donate to environment or vote for it”, JoNova, viewed 7 August 2016, <http://joannenova.com.au/2015/11/54-of-australians-skeptics-of-man-made-global-warming-80-dont-donate-to-environment-or-vote-for-it/ >)

This image shows the survey carried out by CSIRO – Australian Attitudes to Climate Change 2010 – 2014 regarding the thoughts of the Australians about the causes of climate changes. 46% respondents indicated that climate change is largely caused by humans while a substantial percentage believed that it is just a natural fluctuation. Surprisingly, this indicates most Australians (54%) disagree with IPCC experts and do not believe climate change is dominant by human activities. Full survey report of CSIRO can be seen at: https://publications.csiro.au/rpr/download?pid=csiro:EP158008&dsid=DS2.