Post 10:Reflection and proposition

In this week I presented my drafted proposal in class and I got the feedback from my colleagues and tutor. In terms of my proposal, I think it is not solid and strong enough and I am very confused about it.

Actually, I had few ideas about using data visualization or service design to create my proposition before this week. These two proposition are both about smog issue in China, which has become more serious in recent years.

For data visualization, I considered to create a promotional video, which can bring attention to smog issue in China. In addition, for service design, I was prepared to create an application, which aims to help people to know air quality every day.

After all feedback and suggestion being given in week 7 class, I realized I have some advantages and disadvantages. Thus I summarized all feedback and came out these following points:

I decided to give up my promotional video proposal. Because of four weakness/disadvantages:

  1. I have less time to achieve successful video, which is to appeal general public to pay more attention to smog issue.
  2. The promotional video cannot present data visualization clearly. Also it is not strong enough to support my topic issue.
  3. The promotional video is not the best way to analyze data in smog issue.
  4. The promotional video cannot directly and physically change people lifestyle of using transportation

And I decided to develop my service design idea through an application. The advantages of creating App (application) service design come followed:

  1. Based on my research and investigation, I figured out the most fundamental methods to solve smog issue are government policy. Such as pollution emission control and punishment/penalty level increase. Because, the two biggest factors leading to smog in China are fuel, coal and fuel oil. According to the Chinese Academy of Sciences data, 60 % in PM 2.5 were from fuel coal and fuel oil. And the other main factor is motor vehicles emission pollution. However, as a normal people I cannot require the government introduce related policy. But as a designer I can do something when I am waiting for the government to introduce and perfect the policy of smog issue, which is going to slightly change the severeness.
  1. As we are in the era of advanced technology, people would like to accept new things. Especially the Apps are more convenient for people and benefit for their life. The application is a better way to use and help user make some change in their life.
  1. The app is handy from online shop via merely several taps on apple store or android store. Some of them are free to download.
  1. In my opinion, if checking smog level is single main function of this app, the application is not versatile. I am considering if I should add interactive function or promotional activities. For example, users could upload photos or any evidences to proof they use public transport. Whoever collect ten times of using public transport, the user will deserve free Uber once.
  1. Another positive point of my application design is that my users, age group around 18-25, are more interested in new things and easily attracted by technical skill. This age group is also the potential of general public to change their life and benefit their next generation.

My proposition:

Project title:

Have a Go

Practice type:

Service design application

The issue:

Smog issue in air pollution under climate change.

The possible change:

Uese application to slightly change the severeness of smog. Provide air quality index and smog level to remind user of using protection, Wear mask or reduce outdoor exercise.

The designed action to support change:

Provide interactive options or promotional activity.

 

 

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Post 9:Visual documentation of the brainstorming session

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In class brainstorming mapping

As a group, we did brainstorm and mapping with “ who, what where,when and why” which was discussed and explored with other classmates. We did a simple and quick mapping to analyze our topic, water scarcity, awareness of waste and air pollution. Basing on our topic, we wrote down the key points on this map. With taking our own strengths and weaknesses with the process into account. I think we all focus on our specific topic to discuss and analyze important points related to our topic. For example, my topic is air pollution, and I will focus on air pollution in China. The reson for doing this topic is because China was the largest contributor to carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and from cement production in 2012.

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Air pollution brainstorming mapping

And also, air pollution is a serious issue threatening people’s life and behavior. However, our group did not explore deeper for our specific topic. As this result, I have done detailed and comprehensive analysis. In terms of that, I made another brainstorm mapping to explore more details about air pollution. As air pollution is a big topic in climate change, I will focus more on smog issue which is one of the reason leading to air pollution with my primary and secondary research, and all barnstorming mapping.

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service design workshop in review week

In order to better understand how I should create a service design in my proposal. I joined the collaborative workshop for service design case study in the review week. The workshop main task is to do some exercises with a service design article example. Firstly we read the services design article and underlined the human and non-human actors. And then, we were asked to do a mapping about categories the actors in controversy, which should be related to the article. We mapped out the people, technology/communication, and emotion/behaviour/ identity as a group. (image in the above)

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In addition, we developed a flowchart, which analyzes the user and designer’s proposal in this service design. (image in the above)

To sum up, it was a helpful and useful tutorial. It makes me learn lots of things and better understand services design. For example, the tutor told us that the most important thing that we want to tell audiences should be set up in the beginning of a sentence. This is a key point I have never thought about. After these exercises, I will have more insight and idea of my service design proposal. I think my proposal will focus more on the user’s experience and benefit from my proposal.

 

Post 8:Brainstorming possibilities for a design response

During this week’s tutorial, we started to focus and brainstorm some practical designed response to our issue. Basing on five points identified in my first post and considering all the stakeholder maps I have done before, air pollution turns out to be my topic, which is also a serious issue nowadays. However, air pollution is a complicated topic, so I will more focus on smog issue, known as the combination of smoke and fog. According to the research, smog is a type of presentation of air pollution, which is a mixture of energy consumption emission pollutants. I will focus on some possible design response to slightly change smog issue.

According to my primary and secondary research, smog issue is the topic that mostly referred to in China and there are lots of designers making some design proposals which have raised the public awareness about smog. Those proposals also try to solve this issue with their designed concept. I have to admit that we cannot completely solve smog issue, but I will try to create something, which is going to slightly change the severeness of smog under climate change as a designer. Developing a topic research and process of putting concept into practice proved to be difficult at first. The research being found is not enough to support the topic to make design proposal about smog issue. As this result, I started with the criteria provided in the class exercise “Who, What, When, Where and why”.

Who does the problem affect?

In smog issue, it affects lots of general public. Because smog issue is a social issue related to people, such as human health and human lifestyle. However, in my design proposal I will focus on the age group around 18-25 years old as my key stakeholder. This age group is the potential of general public to change their life and benefit their next generation.

There are lots of research reporters around the world now, the children’s lung function in cleaner area are grow faster than the one in polluted area. Poor lung function in early life will lead to lung problem in future life. We should do something when child are growing so that we could make change that child’s life.

What are the boundaries of the problem?

The boundary of the smog issue is relationship between human activity and human health. According to Liu Z’s report, manufacturing and power generation are the major sectors contributing to China’s carbon emissions, together these sectors accounted for 85% of China’s total carbon emissions in 2012.  In addition, outdoor air pollution contributes to the deaths of an approximated 1.6 million people in China every year, or about 4,400 people a day, according to a newly released scientific paper. It can be seen from that human activity influences human health.

When does the problem occur? When dose it need to be fixed?

Climate change issue has been discussed for years, but smog issue in China has become more serious in recent years. The main reason leading smog issue to become more prevalent is the number of motor vehicles in urban areas steadily increased during the 1980s. According to the data from Statista, the number of car in China has been increasing to 172 millions in 2015. I think people should take some actions to control the level of emission from those increasing amount of vehicle. However, this issue cannot be tackled in a short period of time, because the process of putting plan into practice takes some time. Thus, I need to appeal people pay more attention to smog issue, and I would try my best to come up better design to combat the smog issue in china.

Where is the problem occurring? Only in certain locations, certain processes?

Actually, Smog issue is certainly not a new problem for the world, and it is not a new problem for China. The major place where the problem happened are industrialized countries. I focus on smog issue in China as my topic, because China was the largest contributor to carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and from cement production in 2012.

On the other hand, the data from China National Coal Association shows that China ­totally used 36 billion tons of coal till 2013, which is more than all other countries in the world’s usage being added up. The last country using this number of amount of coal is UK in 1860s.

Why is it important that the problem is fixed? What impact does it have on all stakeholders?

I think the biggest reason for problem being fixed is removing the threat on people’s health. According to the database from Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba, research for  the number of masks was made more frequently in several areas hit by heavy pollution this month than elsewhere. And people who live in smog city go to hospitals in growing numbers.

And the people who live in smog city go to hospitals in growing number. Because human need to breathe, breath cannot be avoided or choose, smog is threating our health in every breathe time. The data from EPA shows that person takes between17, 280 and 23,040 breaths on average every day, it is easy to imagine how severe it is if living in smog.

In addition, human is the biggest group in the stakeholders. Because smog issue is related to human health and behavior. Yet human is also one of the reason lead to smog issue. Such as, power plants and traffic. The natural resources is damaged party in Non-human stakeholders, because air pollution can seriously impact the growth of plants.

Five points in summary of what we have identified as possibilities for a design response:

– Through the problem statement, I realized how important to create proposal to remind people of paying more attention to smog issue.

-Data visualization could be a good way to show the number of vehicle increase every year

-The proposal need to be useful and attractive so that it makes people be interested in it. Through this proposal people will pay more attention to smog issue and help to change it.

-To develop a service design can be interactive. We need to use some elements to represent the data. Such as color or lines.

-Based on primary research, people are lack of the consciousness of recycle and environment protection. Thus, the proposal need to give suggestions or create interaction. Such as, taking photo and upload them to record your everyday protective activities.

Draft Proposal:

The proposition is smog issue in China, which has become more serious in recent years. Because of over emissions, the number of vehicle increased and crowed population. I am considering creating something to appeal people to pay more attention to smog issue.

After all research, mapping and five point summary of possibilities, I decided to create a service design with an application, which aims to help people to know air quality in every day. This proposal is established on data monitoring and analyzing air pollution index to kindly remind people of wearing mask in smog day. This can protect people health. And the other reason I decided to create an App is because the age group around 18 to 25, main target market of age group, are more welling to try new things.

Reference:

 

BBC, 2016, “Air pollution in China each year the death toll in the world”, viewed 19 September 2016, <http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2016/02/160213_world_pollution_death_china >

China National Coal Association, 2013, “Energy policy”, viewed 18 September 2016,

<http://www.chinacoal.gov.cn/templet/3/ShowArticle.jsp?id=32777 >

EPA, 2014, “How Many Breaths Do You Take Each Day?”, viewed 18 September 2016,< https://blog.epa.gov/blog/2014/04/how-many-breaths-do-you-take-each-day/ >

Jin, C. 2015, “QiongDingZhiXia”, video recording, YouTube,viewed 17 September 2016, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KR-OMEq9v8A >

Millward, S. 2014, TECHINASIA, “In China, even creating a pollution tracking app is a risky business”, viewed 19, September 2016, <https://www.techinasia.com/china-pollution-tracking-app-startup >

Post 7: Issue mapping

In week 5 class, our four students associated with the group of climate change collaborated to map out the climate change issue. The map process included looking for the relationship between stakeholders and influences of the climate change issue, highlighting more detail and figuring out what emotions come behind them. This mapping exercise aims to outline the relationship between stakeholder including human and nonhuman and climate change.

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stakeholders mapping in class

At the first, our group wrote down some stakeholders that we think are important roles in the climate change issue. We broke them into two parts, human and nonhuman. On one hand, in human part, my group looked at government, NGO, pubic and economy. We think these roles have relationship with human activity that could influences climate change. And we barnstormed some more details and branched out all the relevant points. During discussions and exploration, we found lots of new words that related to climate change issue, and also found more detail points that can help us to do further research. For example, we put forward if manufactories have emission that has gone over the standard level, government will penalize based on original tax.

On the other hand, in non-human part, our group listed all natural resources and environment related to climate change. In addition to this, we discussed the production stakeholders that is linked between human and non-huan. For example, the supply chain includes farm produce, factory process, and transport to retailers flowing to customers. In this process of supply chain, factory may reach above emission standard causing pollution.

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polemic and emotion mapping in class

Furthermore, we mapped out the polemic about climate change issues, which is related to our own topics. We looked at the emotions that come out from these research topics. Our group listed five topics as our polemics, which are air pollution, energy, and waste, high temperature and raise in sea level. We discussed about most of people feeling of these polemics, which is nothing else than fear, worry and ignorance. According to my research, most of people understand what climate change means, however, they do not really think about what is it and not concerned about it.

Through this collaborative issue mapping exercise, I learned more different point of views and how they are related to the stakeholders. I started thinking about how important the mapping is to consider the thought behind the climate change issue and the stakeholders involved with it.

Post 6: Scraping the web for data

Recently, social media has become the most important part of Internet, it is also a primary channel where people can get information and share story and communication. Social media has gained astounding worldwide growth and popularity, there are lots of different types of social media, such as twitter, facebook or blogs. In order to better understand the issue of climate change, I investigate even further from social media platform, which is instagram.

There are no ads cluttering the screen. There’s no potpourri of features such as “checking in” to a place where you just arrived.

You take a photo, you post it and you see other people’s photos.

There’s something magical about that simplicity.

Instagram is a platform where people can use a simple way to share the world’s moment. Using the image and video to record daily life is instagram’s major feature. people can share news and interesting snippets with photos or short video, and people can follow anyone who you are interest on. Another very important function to me is I can search any keyword, user or location.

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Instagram statistics, 2016

To date, Instagram has 30 million users, and over 400 million people actively use Instagram on a monthly basis. As the above statistical data shows that the most part of people using instagram is from age group 18 to 24. Actually this is the age group I need to focus on. As this result, I consider that instagram is a platform which can provide me more information and feedback on how this age group people think about climate change.

post6post62The picture above is the screenshots of search interface. As the screenshot shows that you can see what will be looks like after enter keywords, there are “Top”, ”People”, ”Tag” and “Place”.

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In order to better understand how Instagram is useful to explore Climate Change, I found a relevant user account, which is NASA official account for Climate Change. The “nasa climate change” uploaded only 271 posts in past time, but the number of followers has reached over 45 thousands. Thus, I think this user account have significant influence. In this user account, I found lots of posted links, photos, information and other sources to help me raise awareness of climate change. Another user account named “every day climate change” attracted me to follower it. All nice photos from this user’s post are related to climate change. I like the photographers taking beautiful and meaningful photos and provoking our thoughts. According to followers’ comments, they all think photography is a good way to appeal people to pay more attention of climate change.

Through this finding, Instagram is a platform where people can comment on their opinion, share their personal experience or just like the photo. And also is platform where official organization or individual can post news and research.

twitter屏幕快照 2016-09-05 下午9.59.27

On the other hand, web scraper can be an easy way to organaise and anlayse data for a certain issue. Using data scraping to search any information about Climate Change is a good method that I never tried before. I searched and documented all data sets about Climate Change from twitter rule using the google sheets web scraper. I searched the word “climate change” written in English and all over the world. The results were 10,772 in 29th August. Just one day and one moment, the results were so immense. I also conducted on Data Pipeline and searched climate change anywhere around the world. After the research, I got lots of information highly related to the issue of climate change.

 

Overall, I summarized my finding in five points:

  • Instagram is a popular and useful social media in young age group.
  • People can search any keywords that can be related to location and user account.
  • Using photo and short video as a simple way to show personal opinion on climate change.
  • Web Scraper is quick and handy to use. The search results are abundant.
  • Web Scraper can also be seen how many people are concerned with this issue.
Reference List:

East, N. 2016, ‘Instagram for business’, viewed 03 September 2016, <http://socialmotive.com.au/blog/?p=63>

Jesdanun, A. 2012, ‘Review: Warming up to photo-sharing app Instagram’, viewed 03 September 2016, <https://www.yahoo.com/news/review-warming-photo-sharing-app-instagram-211914202.html>

Post 5:Approaches to design for change, design-led ethnography

Climate change has become a serious globalized issue which is concerned by social media, economy and science. And this issue is interrelated to my life as well since I can see and find the articles, advertisements, and news around my life being concerned with climate change. This interests me in how people think about climate change. In order to gain more insight into how other people think about this issue, and what attitude does people take towards climate change. I conducted an interview in the class and probe with other people.

My  interview question
  • What comes to your mind when you heard of the “Climate Change”? Why do you get this?
  • How important is climate change to you? Can rate from 1-10, 1 is not important and 10 is very important. Do you think it impact you, in what way? Why?
  •   Do you consider climate change in daily basis? Like how often do you think about        environmental issue in your daily life? Do you recycle your rubbish ?                                      (If no can you recall a memory of what were told about climate change from a friend or family member? Does it affect you personally? If yes what do you think that there are anything you can do more?)
  • Can you give an example of your personal experience about climate change? how do you feel about it? Can you think of any evidence of climate change? like can you feel the warm?
  •  What would motivate you to do something about the problem? when would you feel the need to? What would make you feel easier to do something?
  • Did you heard about air pollution and smog?  How to explain it?  How do you think it means to you?
The interview

As a group, we discussed several questions in the class about climate change the interviewee may notice in the daily life. Some general questions will be asked at the first, and the interviewee need to answer yes or no. Then I will ask open question where the interviewee is supposed to give us a descriptive opinion to this topic.

My interviewee is my classmate from other issues group, and she never does research about the climate change. My interviewee was thinking about melting Ice Caps, pollution when climate change came to her mind, she heard about this issues mostly from the keywords in news. Because climate change is a globalized issue, people around us talk about it. She thought this issue is important to us, because she can feel it in daily life, such as temperature variation and short winter. She said she likes winter since it makes her comfortable. However, the winter is getting shorter cause of climate change. She mentioned that she would avoid using plastic bag if she buys something, because she thinks degradable material is one of factors that casus climate change.

On the other hand, she also mentioned that old people do not believe climate change is influencing our lives, because they do not concern with this issue as much as we are. In additional, she claimed that some animals were treated by climate change in Tasmania and this is a point I did not research before. In the end, she suggested that the government should build more rubbish bins in the public place, which may lessen the rubbish on the ground, keeping city tidy. When I asked her did she classify rubbish, she said yes. In Australia, there are classified rubbish bin called household waste and recycle bins outside house where there are 3 different color for 3 different types of waste. I can see them all the time. Rubbish classification is a small move, but I think this is a good way to get environment better.

Since I will do some further research to compare air pollution in different countries, I asked my classmate,who is an Australian, some questions about smog in China, She said she heard about it but she did not see smog in Australia.

The probe

probe。
Survey form for Probe

Above is a survey I made for my interviewees. In order to gain more information and insight into interview, I interviewed other people who have different sights in climate change. In order to compare people’s attitude from different countries to climate change, I interviewed two Chinese. And I focus on age 18 to 25, because I think this age group is energetic and they dare to try new things and activities. I hope this age group can do something to encourage public pay more attention to climate change. I summarized their answer which comes following.

Interviewee 1:

Wang is 23 years old, and she is a staff working in airport. In terms of working in airport, she thinks climate change is really serious issue to her. I mentioned to her that I researched a news before which is about the relationship between airplane emissions and climate change. She agreed with the correlation between those 2 factors, and she said that air pollution was not just from cars emissions, also was caused by airplane emissions. About recycle rubbish, she said that she classifies rubbish when she is outside. However, she doe not classify rubbish at home, because her family and her neighbors usually put rubbish to a place where there is no rubbish classification. She always use public traffic to work, she said this is a continent way and it is a green lifestyle. Since I will focus on air pollution in further research, I also ask question about air pollution. Actually, she studied in Beijing before. She mentioned that air pollution is very common in Beijing, so she knows smog and how smog is serious in Beijing. In the end, she mentioned that she would suggest her family and colleague using recycle rubbish bin.

Interviewee 2:

Lee, 19 years old, is a university student. He heard of climate change from school and news. He thinks that climate change to him, is like a word you know its meaning, but you do not know what does means to you. He does not often think about environmental issue in his daily life, because he is busy in studying his major, which is not related to climate change in university. Lee also said that he does not recycle rubbish personally, because he usually ignores small things or details in daily life. In addition, I mentioned to him that smog is a serious social problem in China, and I asked his opinion to smog. He thought the smog was very common, the social media and news reported smog frequently. Even he knew it from his own experience too. To sum up, he said that he would be more concern with climate change and also classify rubbish and waste.

Five points summarized from what I learnt during my probe:
  • China does not have a system for sorting rubbish, Australian have great awareness of environmental protection.
  • Everyone knows climate change, but many people do not know how to decelerate climate change.
  • Younger people do not have strong sense of protect environment.
  • Air pollution is globalized issue, but more serious in China.
  • Climate change is changing our life slowly, we should do something against it immediately.

Post 3:Mapping the participants and constructing an image archive

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brainstorming mapping in class

With the gradual deepening of the research, we dig into research topics that are related to stakeholders as well as surrounding players and we made a group map in week 2 class.

We did a quick mind map to brainstorm the key words for climate change at fist. We wrote down all words, which are related to the climate change. This mind map makes me feel helpful, because we all talked about different issues in climate change and I learnt lots of related terms.

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brainstorming mapping in class

In order to further explore, we organized an extended map again, which is used post-it notes. In this map, we focused more on connections and interaction. We listed some main words, such as government, natural resources and environment. We considered that this way was better for data analysis.

stakeholders
stakeholder mapping

 

 

Image Archive

01.“Smog envelops Beijing: before and after pictures as city goes on red alert”

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Tiananmen Square(Kevin Frayer/Getty 2015)
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The Forbidden City (Kevin Frayer/Getty 2015)
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Beijing’s National Stadium, also known as the Bird’s Nest (Kim Kyung-Hoon/ Jason Lee/Reuters, 2o12)

This series of photos show same place in smoggy day and clean day in Beijing. These photos are from The Guardian in UK where there are series of photograph in different place. I considered this is the stark contrast between smoggy day and clear day, which is a unique way to make people feel how smoggy Beijing is.

02. HELP STOP GLOBAL WARMING CAMPAIGN

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Ferdi Rizkitanto, 2009

This poster intends to represent that the energy threatens penguins by Ferdi Rizkitanto. The poster is called “turn it off now”. The designer refers to one thing causing global warming, which is electrical pollution and the designer is appealing to people to turn off lights when people leave a room.

03.

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victor van gaasbeek, 2009

This poster created by victor van gaasbeek is called “rising sea level”. The reason to create this poster is that the raise in current sea level has reached at a mean rate of 1.8 mm per year for the past century. Global warming is the main reason leading to sea level increase. The designer uses panda with life buoy to represent the panda has to live on the sea now. This is an interesting way to show the raise in sea level.

04. “The first signs of global warming are now clearly visible. We urgently need to limit greenhouse gas emissions.”

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WWF, 2012

This print was created by WWF, which is a non-government organization to protect environment. Obviously, the designer compares earth to ice cream. The ice cream can be melt easily, so the designer makes people associate with earth getting warming now. Through this illustration, the designer appeals to people to be more concerned with global warming. Actually, I obsess over the public advertising from WWF.

05. It’s High Time

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WWF, 2012

This poster was also found in WWF. This poster aims to distinguish the rising sea level as same as the last one. Also, this poster demonstrates how humans will be impacted by these changes, alluding to the prediction that giraffe will gradually submerged underwater. As we all know, giraffe is taller animal than other animals, so the designer use a giraffe to show the predicted sea level in the future.

06.

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Davide Bonazzi, 2014

This illustration was created by an Italian illustrator Davide Bonazzi. David who always creates unique illustration style usually uses mixed digital techniques with textures of scanned objects. This makes his illustrations so warm and evocative atmosphere. With this image representing the earth getting warm just like a lighted match, it implies that people need blow it out and solve the earth. In my opinion, this illustration tells people that the global warming is extremely urgent and we need concern about it immediately.

07.

fry
Sia Wienie, 2011

This series of posters intend to represent the earth is getting warm where cooking food with air, ground heat and water is possible. These are the three basic elements on the earth. And, the global warming happened because this three basic elements on our earth had been polluted. In my opinion, the designer used three different and simple methods to show her intention that the earth is getting warm. Although it is a metaphor exaggerating a way to show his intention, it definitely is a good illustration. The designer’s motivation was to alarm people about global warming. Also, the designer wants to bring the message about how hot our earth will facing in the future if we didn’t find any solution to rescue our earth from global warming.

08.

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Pierre, H, St. 2011

This cartoon shows quality of air and people have to breathe from a glass container that has a tree within. The tree represents fresh air production in this cartoon. The designer used simple draw way and colour to show the concept. The reason I chose this cartoon is that I focus on air pollution. In addition, this cartoon makes audience understand much easily designer’s intention.

09. 2013chiu-chih-voyage-on-the-planet-designboom.jpg!article.foil3024611-slide-chiu-chih-voyage-on-the-planet-designboom01

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Chiu Chih, 2014

These photos are really similar with the cartoon above where the girl is putting the tree to a glass container (backpack). I found this photo and last cartoon in different resources, but they are all concerned with air pollution. The designer had this backpack manufactured for 800 RMB (160 AUD) , saying it’s easy “to manufacture things in this largest world factory.” It was used only for these photographs. The designer taken it in Wuhan, where classmates posed as models. None of the landscape was altered. “Air was bad, traffic was bad,” Chih says. “It’s highly polluted.” Recently, more people advocate “green living” lifestyle that is used in public transport and reduce emission. I think more people will be concerned about air pollution issue.

10. Polar Bear Hamburger

polar bear burger 4polar bear burger

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Vincent J. F Huang, 2014

This artwork was created by Vincent J.F Huang, who has created lots of sculptures related of the climate change. In this artwork, Huang created a giant Polar Bear Burger where a polar bear is sandwiched in the middle of two burger buns. Though this artwork, the artist motivation is to let human understand that climate change is main reason threatening polar bear’s life. Huang’s artworks usually impress people, and also force the audience to see the connections between our daily habits and environmental consequences.

Reference List

Alcorn, S. Fastcoexist, ‘This Wearable Plant Cleans The Air For You When Pollution Is Bad’, viewed 28 August 2016, <https://www.fastcoexist.com/3024611/this-wearable-plant-cleans-the-air-for-you-when-pollution-is-bad>

Alexander. 2014, ‘Climate Determinism’, Blogger post, 9 September, viewed 29 August 2016, <http://anthropology1181.blogspot.com.au/2014/09/99.html >

Andrew, P. Speckyboy Design Magazine, ‘Thought-Provoking Conceptual Illustrations from Davide Bonazzi’, viewed 29 August 2016, <https://speckyboy.com/2014/05/30/thought-provoking-conceptual-illustrations/ >

Graphic Design Junction, ’65+ Most Creative WWF Global Climate Change ADs ‘, viewed 28 August 2016, <http://graphicdesignjunction.com/2010/07/40-most-creative-wwf-global-climate-change-ads/ >

Muzaurieta, B, A. 2008, Popular Mechanics, ‘11 Powerful Environmental Messages’ , viewed 28 August 2016, <http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/g53/environmental-ads-44102408/?slide=2 >

Pierre, H, St. 2011, ‘we can’t live healthy on a sick planet’, blogspot post, viewed 28 August 2016, <http://baldiesblog.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/we-cant-live-healthy-on-sick-planet.html >

Syaan. 2012, DdesignerR, ‘20+Great Global Warming Posters’ , viewed 27 August 2016, <http://www.ddesignerr.com/20-great-global-warming-posters/>

The Guardian, 2015, Smog envelops Beijing: before and after pictures as city goes on red alert, United Kingdom, viewed 27 August 2016, <https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2015/dec/08/beijing-air-pollution-red-alert-smog-before-after-pictures>

 

 

post 4: Identify and collecting a design example

During the pervious research, I looked for some project working related to climate change. Then I found CAIT, which is data visualized system. In order to further research and exploring air pollution,  CAIT could help me to analyze and collect data about climate change.

What is CAIT?

CAIT is a web- based data explorer, which belongs to World Resources Institute. World Resources Institute is a global research organization, where turned big ideas into action to sustain our natural resources. CAIT is providing comprehensive and comparable greenhouse gas emissions data sets as well as other climate-relevant indicators, where the full name is the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool. This tool can be used to analyze a wide range of climate-related data questions and help inform policy discussions and decisions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other forums.

Reason of using CAIT

CAIT is designed to enable efficient and useful exploration of data. The platform allows user to select a data collection and focus on a subset of data within that collection. The user can refine what is viewed within each data table, and create visualizations from the data portrayed.

Application of CAIT

CAIT consists of historical emissions, equity explorer, emission projections, pre-2020 pledges map, Paris contributions map and business emissions and targets. For example, in historical emissions, you can analyze and visualize the latest available international greenhouse gas emissions data. The database includes 186 countries, 50 US states, 6 gases, multiple economic sectors, and information with time frame of 160 years. I tried to create a pie graph for transportation GHG emissions in 2012. It is an easy way to create and clear to show the data. There are five options that you can choose from visualization you like. Although the pie graph shows a limited number of countries, it can be seen that the Unite Stated is the biggest country in transportation GHG emissions. The method to save data visualization only needs clicking download and you can also save it as excel format, it is handy and easy to use.

Country GHG Emissions
Example of GHG emissions from CAIT

Another example is “The Pre-2020 Pledges Map”, which presents the percentage of emissions covered by countries that have submitted a pre-2020 pledge. This database presents hundreds of countries emissions predicted development to the year 2020, and also descried different pledge types and GHG target types in each country. In additional, this database provides all main types of green house gases in each country. I created a form to compare the ones of Australia, China and United Stated.

屏幕快照 2016-08-22 下午5.33.41
Example of compare different countries from CAIT

Summary

I think CAIT is a really convenient and user-friendly  tool to visualize data and information about climate change. CAIT is a technology method to explore climate change in many countries. Especially, I think CAIT, where I can search CO2 and GHG emissions in the past and future and make comparisons among countries, is really helpful to me, because I want to explore the sensitivity of climate change to air pollution, which is related to CO2 and GHG emissions.

Reference:

CAIT, viewed 20 August 2016, < http://cait.wri.org >

CAIT, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://cait2.wri.org/help.html>

World Resources Institute, viewed 21 August, < http://cait.wri.org>

 

Post 2:Building you expertise using secondary sources

Why I chose climate change as my issue? Because I was thinking about smog issue in China when I saw it. Many of developed cities in China suffer from smog, which has caused some factory to virtually shut down. The smog, one kind of severe air pollution, is a serious issue in China. The smog has influenced people’s normal breathing, thus people having outdoor activities need to wear facemasks. Even the students do not need to go to school under this circumstance. Actually, smog is one reason can result in global warming.

According to all pervious researches, I further research how the authors are positioning the global warming. I found two scholarly sources that are from academic book.

In first scholarly source, the author focuses on prospects and policies in Asia and Europe. In this book, each chapter includes different articles and authors. I read one of chapter which is about china’s emissions reduction policy: problem and prospects. Why I chose this chapter is because I investigated about china smog issue in previous research. I want to find some research where it can refer to reduce emission effectively. The author name is Meidan Michal in this article. The author is writing for everyone who wants to understand China’s emission reduction policy, just like me. The author’s motivation to write the article is not just to introduce China emission reduction policy but also to talk about participation in international forums. This is a well-researched article, the author used a lot of data and example to show how Chinese government develop emission reduction policy. The author didn’t show position in this article, however I can clearly to see how government assertively deals with emission, and I have confidence in addressing smog in China.

Another one scholarly source is also from a book, the author is Houghton John writing for general people who want to learn knowledge about global warming. This book explained the definition about global warming and climate change, and also explained greenhouse and history of climate change. The author belongs to Cambridge University, so he can be trusted. The author mentioned global warming which is a topic that increasingly occupies the attention of the world. He took some questions, such as it global warming really happened? If so, how much of it is due to human activated? Or what action to combat it can or should we take? The author is motivated to write this book to set out provide answers question by providing the best and latest information available. Houghton is an expert in this area. The author’s position focused on the aspects of global warming that are hardest to solve. I agree with the author and I think I would give some credit for this book because of the solid arguments.

Reference: 

Houghton, H. 2015, Global Warming: The complete briefing, 5th edn, Cambridge.

Marquina, A. 2010, Global Warming and Climate Change: Prospects and Policies in Asia and Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, The United Kingdom.

Meidan, M. 2015, ‘China’s Emissions Reduction Policy: Problems and Prospects, part 4, no17, pp 307-321.

Post1: Creating a data set using secondary sources

Article one:

This article is about “The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources”, the author is anonymous, but the author belongs to a communications foundation which is named GRACE. GRACE Communications Foundation develops innovative strategies to increase public awareness of the critical environmental and public health issues created by our current industrial food system, and to advocate for more sustainable alternatives. So they are trustworthy.

The author’s motivation to write the article is to advocate people to reduce emissions, to prevent climate change and protect our threatened freshwater sources. They may not be experts, but they are primarily concerned with food, water and energy and they focuses on sustainable development.

This article is under the water program which contains articles about climate the change. However I am not sure that those article other than this one are written by this anonymous author. The reason is that the author is not provided on the website. This article is opinion based, but it also quotes some research from NASA. The author thinks water, energy, agriculture and climate have a significant relationship.

The author mentioned the systems used to treat and move public water supplies require a large amounts of energy, and the energy is produced mainly by burning coal, natural gas, oil and other fossil fuels. Thus, when we use water we also use energy at the same time and contribute to climate change. I agree with the author to this point of view. There are lots of things we can do. Such as, reducing emissions by using public transportation with using less private vehicle.

Reference:

Grace Communications Foundation, Water Program, viewed 10 August 2016, <http://www.gracelinks.org/2380/the-impact-of-climate-change-on-water-resources&gt;

Article two:

The second article is also from GRACE Communications Foundation, but is under food program which has explained food is other factor to contribute climate change.

The author wrote it for general people, food manufacturing and construction industry, because they are main factors of climate change. The author also mentioned that food waste and livestock production are the factors of climate change. The author did lots of research to this article. For example, Livestock production alone contributes to 18 percent of the global warming effect, more than the emissions from every single car, train, and plane on the planet.  Though livestock production only contributes 9 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, the sector is responsible for 37 percent of methane and 65 percent of nitrous oxide, both potent greenhouse gases. These statistics shows that the author has done some research and convinces the audience with actual number. Thus, they can be trusted.

The author’s m­­­otivation to write the article is that with the rapid growth of farming, which helps to address climate change with using less fertilizers and fossil fuel. This is concluded as organic and sustainable farms.

And this article is also opinion based and well researched. The author’s position is that every small thing around us can influence climate change, such as food waste and raising animals. In the conclusion, the author advocated people to eat less meat and dairy. Instead, people should choose to eat organic foods, whole food and to drink tap water. I agree with the author, because the rapid and radical twentieth-century transformation of our food system from sustainably based, locally focused production, to a fossil-fuel addicted industrialized system.

Reference:

Grace Communications Foundation, Food Program, viewed 11 August 2016,

<http://www.sustainabletable.org/982/agriculture-energy-climate-change&gt;

Article three:

In this article, the author investigated the smog in China. The author is Zach Sokol, who usually publishes articles in twitter. This article belongs to the website named the creators project. The website is a platform to polish global events, daily video and editorial content. In this article, the author focused on air pollution issue in china, he motivation is to let more people know how serious the smog issue is in China. According to his published article online, he seems not to be an expert, because he never wrote any article related to climate change. In addition, he wrote some article on blog which does not need to rely on any evidence support. I think this article is opinion based. Sokol thought Smog had been threatening people around the world. We should figure out more forward thinking proposed solutions to this issue.

And also, he took an example about “smog rings.” I am really interest into it, so I did some research about it. This picture comes below is an incredible design from a Dutch designer named Daan Roosegaarde. This design is a ring, which is to address the smog issue. Each ring comes with either a fake diamond made from soot or a stone with a cube of soot in the center, and Roosegaarde hopes the project will help bring awareness to the issue of air pollution. I think this idea that having a daily used accessory to throttle down smog issue matches my initial idea.

3
Smog ring

 

Reference:

Larson, K. 2016, wearing 1000m3 of clean air, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://grownuptruth.com/wearing-1000m3-of-clean-air/&gt;

Lofgren, K. 2015, This ring is made of smog harvested from Beijing’s polluted skies, Inhabitat, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://inhabitat.com/artist-daan-roosegaarde-creates-jewelry-out-of-beijing-smog/&gt;

Sokol, Z 2013, New Project Cleans The Smog Out Of China And Turns It Into Jewelry, The Creators Project, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/en_au/blog/ion-technology-aka-techno-poetry-cleans-the-smog-out-of-china&gt;

Article four:

This article is also about the relationship between smog and climate change. The author referred to soot and black carbon are another two reasons for global warming. Hickey is the author in this article. He is writing this article for general public, this article was published on the university of Washington website and part of international research, so I think it is under a professional body and trustworthy.

The author was motivated to write this article to control smog which can deliver more immediate climate benefits than trying to control carbon dioxide. She is an expert in University and Washington. Especially, Hickey mentioned black carbon, the soot particles in smoke and smog, which contributes about twice as much to global warming as previously estimated.

2
smog in Beijing

I think the experience, abundant research and critical thinking deduce that the author is an expert. Hickey actually has written about this issue before, such as “Will Puget Sound’s population spike under climate change?”, “climate change could cause more species of animals to interbreed” and “Warmer Pacific Ocean could release millions of tons of seafloor methane”. There are all worth reading.

In my opinion, this article is factual, opinion based and well researched. He did some research about black carbon, and collected some report surveyed past studies to prove his point. The author’s position in this article is reducing the use of black carbon to control climate change. Thus carbon dioxide emissions should also be reduced. I strongly agree with that the smog issue is pervasive not just in China.

Reference:

Hickey, H. 2013, International study: Where there’s smoke or smog, there’s climate change, University of Washington, viewed 11 August 2016,<http://www.washington.edu/news/2013/01/15/international-study-where-theres-smoke-or-smog-theres-climate-change/&gt;

Sokol, Z 2013, New Project Cleans The Smog Out Of China And Turns It Into Jewelry, The Creators Project, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/en_au/blog/ion-technology-aka-techno-poetry-cleans-the-smog-out-of-china&gt;

Article five:

Is climate change related to airplane pollution? Actually, I had never thought about this question before until I found this article. This article is about the Obama announcing its plan to start regulating planet-warming pollution from airplanes, and setting off a battle between environmentalists and the airline industry. The author is Davenport C, who is a news from The New York Times. It is a professional body and trustworthy.

Davenport was motivated to write the article to make more people to realize airplane also has impact on climate change. Davenport is a regular contributor to The New York Times, and he/ she maybe is an expert. Because I saw Davenport has written lots of article about climate change before. I think this article is factual, editorial and rigorous.

There is no clear evidence showing the author’s position in this article. It is interesting to note that airline industry emission account for just 2 percent of global emissions. However many analysts still think airplane accelerate climate change. In my opinion, I agree with control the growth of airline industry to reduce air pollution and I think there are many different ways that can reduce airplane pollution. I read another article from The New York Times, which is about improving airplane by eliminating the shroud that surrounds most jet engines, and aerodynamic modifications that smooth the airflow over surfaces to reduce drag. And further improvement will as carbon free as possible and use new “clean sheet” aircraft designs. I think it is a good way to reduce air pollution cause by airplane emission.

Reference:

Davenport, C. 2016, E.P.A. Moves to Regulate Emissions in Air Travel (The New York Times), 26 July, PP. A17, <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/us/politics/epa-airplane-pollution.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FGlobal%20Warming&gt;

Fountain, H. 2016, Rethinking the Airplane With Climate in Mind. (The New York Times), 11 January , PP. D1, <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/12/science/rethinking-the-airplane-for-climates-sake.html >