Post 10 – Reflection & Proposition

During the one on one design propositions with my colleague, it was apparent that I had not distinguished between white hat hackers and black hat hackers enough and as the issue was about transparency, the advice was to properly introduce white hat hackers and black hat hackers to the audience so that they have a clear understanding between the two before they enter and navigate the space. Other comments were that they felt the proposal was very fitting for the issue and topic that I chose – which is that of online privacy and data security, specifically transparency on hackers. The feedback that I received from my tutor, was that my proposal contains many different spaces and ideas and rather than attempting to fit many different ideas into the space, it would be best to be more specific and portray one idea effectively throughout the space. The idea that was most effective was the splitting of the space into three different “zones” or spaces – black, white and grey, each representing the various hackers and their motives. The feedback was to incorporate more than just a history or timeline or even motives of hackers, but to also portray values such as morals (in the context of white, black and grey morality) and other information that would not be easily and readily available from an internet search. Another notion that was emerged from the discussion was to focus on the relationship between the user and the space and how they can communicate and interact with it, rather than it being a one way conversation.

The design proposition attempts to solve the issue of hackers and their lack of transparency in relation to government laws and public perception through the use of data visualization in a gallery and exhibition space. The avenues of possible change are generally associated directly with the user and audience of the space, in the sense that, due to the nature of the issue, their perception, knowledge and point of view is most important. Thus, it is best to conclude that successful solutions would increase the knowledge and expands the perception of the end user. To support this “change”, the space would be divided into three smaller spaces, black, white and grey. Each smaller space would serve as a point of information as well as a catalyst that evokes emotions and critical thinking on more specific themes such as morality, political correctness and more. As the issue itself is of a global scale, my proposition aims to open these exhibition spaces throughout the world on several different dates. The possibility of change in this process is directly linked to the success of the exhibition “world tours”, as media coverage would be the best way to shed transparency on a large scale. As the notion of “morality” is extremely open ended and is open to individual perception, and rather than forcing upon them preconceived notions of what is morally “white” or “good” and what is morally “black” or “bad”, it would be best to allow the user to make the choice themselves. To remove as much conscious and subconscious social and political values, the users would not need to disclose their identity and questions would generally ask which statement resonates with them the most. Rather than providing a scenario or hacking that occurred and the parties involved and allowing the users to choose, it would be best to display multiple statements that portray the intentions, motives and values of the white and black hat hackers, as it would eliminate any prejudices against a certain group.

To interact with the space, there could either be kiosks throughout the exhibition, or a mobile phone application that allows the user to communicate with the space and also to guide the user throughout the space. Once the user has chosen a statement, the kiosk or application would direct the user to a different space (black, white or grey), where the user would be placed in an immersive experience that reveals which party (white hat or black hat) they chose, as well as providing details on the event that occurred through text, audio, video and imagery. The data displayed would include the event itself, laws, the respective hacker’s motives, values and perspectives at the time and also the stakeholders affected.

In regards to the aforementioned mobile application, an augmented reality type application that utilizes the phone’s camera would be most effective as it is an emerging technology and would also allow information and imagery to overlay on the users screen as they are pointing the camera around. This would allow for a different, unique experience for each user depending on their actions within the space. As such, rather than cluttering the space with information, key points and values should be displayed on the physical space (in the form of projections), whilst the mobile companion application would allow users to access further information. This type of interaction between mobile phones and a physical space would likely pique interest in the target demographic which is teens, young adults and adults, as these age brackets are generally the most technologically literate.

The coloured spaces will also update in real-time in relation to the users’ choices, for example, if many users resonated with the black hat hackers, the black space would grow larger, whilst the other two spaces would grow smaller. As such, the main focus of the space and experience is to provide the user with multiple choices, which ultimately affect the space. To allow a single user to experience multiple perspectives, there should be various scenarios set up throughout the space which also change each day. To stimulate critical thinking amongst the user, the notion of “is there such a thing as a ‘bad’ hacking?” and similar ideas should be raised throughout their experience, as although malicious hackings are often morally viewed as unethical, it could also be argued that security technologies would not have progressed to where it is currently if not for black hat, malicious hackers.

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Blog Post 9 / Visual Documentation

As mentioned in my previous blog post (8), I brainstormed the ideas in a group of two which had its advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages was apparent from the start, as we were able to discuss similarities between our two issues whilst forming our problem statements. And before the mapping and problem statement processes began, due to the nature of the group being small, we were able to properly introduce our problems and go into detail on why we have chosen the issue. This gave context to our chosen issues which made it much easier to understand and propose ideas in the later exercises.

For the idea/solution proposition brainstorming exercise, for my particular issue, we identified two categories that would be most effective – data visualization and service design. As previously mentioned, by introducing our problem in-depth earlier, it was possible for us to quickly come to this conclusion. There were many benefits to having a group that was half the size of the regular groups, such as having more time to go in depth about each issue, elaborating and branching out more on brainstormed ideas and having discussion on where the ideas could potentially go next. As seen in the map, each idea would go into detail and branch off into potential solutions, this was an advantage of a small group, however, in comparison to other groups, the amount of ideas generated are limited. This was the main disadvantage of working in a small group throughout the exercises. As such, we focused on quality, plausibility and comprehensiveness of ideas, rather than quantity of ideas.

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The mapping of my chosen issue by brainstorming solutions in each category and also as well as mapping a stakeholders map

Blog Post 8 / Brainstorming possibilities for a design solution

I was brainstorming in a group of two for the design response, which had its advantages and disadvantages. Advantages being that, each person had more time to go into more detail about their concept and flesh out their ideas in more detail, but the disadvantages were that we were not able to brainstorm as many ideas as other groups of four or five would have been able to. In essence, the brainstorming session was more quality over quantity. It was an insightful session as with just two people in the group, we were able to see where our concepts and problem statements coincide. For example, as both of us were part of the online privacy and data group, by analyzing the problem, we were able to find overlaps in both problems, such as the technological aspect and the surveillance and digital interface aspects.

The process of dissecting the what, when, where, how and why of the problem was very useful in forming the problem statement. The actual worth of this process became clear once all the information in relation to the problem was written out in the five easily digestible categories.

As my area of study Is online privacy and data security, I chose to focus on the individuals that are most commonly associated with security – hackers. Through my previous research, I learnt of the existence of white hat (ethical) and black hat (malicious) hackers. I also learnt that the current laws do not accommodate and distinguish between ethical hackers and their malicious counterparts. Thus, the problem statement that I formed was:

There are various types of hackers and current laws do not discriminate between them. Transparency needs to be shed on the processes and differences between white hat (ethical) and black hat (malicious) hackers. More businesses and corporations could make use of ethical hackers, however, turn away due to the negative stigma attached by the general public and media.

At its core, the issue is about the lack of transparency and lack of laws surrounding hackers. The two main categories that ideas fell under was service design and data visualization. The process was quite interesting as it included standard mapping of ideas as well as stakeholder maps, which was an exercise performed in a previous class. The design possibilities that were brainstormed and identified included:

  • Visualisation of data in the form of an infographic
  • A black and white, monochromatic colour scheme for any data visualization ideas (portrays the contrast between ethical and malicious hackers, playing on the idea of black hat and white hat hackers)
  • A service that sheds transparency on the different processes and methods of white hat and black hat hackers, whilst at the same time provides or prompts some form of interactivity
  • A data visualization of the many stakeholders that have a relation to hackers, including businesses, corporations, individuals and governments. The concept was mapped in the form of a stakeholder map and ideas that formed included data and political warfare
  • A service/visualization which “hacks” into real life public objects such as bus stop kiosks to shed transparency on ethical hackers and malicious hackers. For example, corrupt images and content with ill intent would be shown on the kiosk to portray malicious hackers and images/content promoting a positive message or promoting solutions would portray the ethical hackers

The design proposal I have in mind is more a combination of two of the above points. The main focus and content will be on drawing the relations between hackers and other entities such as governments and businesses and with that data, a data visualization service would be provided that would prompt some form of interactivity or briefing of information, such as the kiosk example stated in the fifth point. By further breaking down the stakeholders map, it is easier to determine which technologies and locations should be targeted. As the main issue is transparency, there needs to be an efficient method to display this information to the general public. At first, kiosks appear to be effective, however, the effort necessary to make it effective would not be efficient in terms of informing a large number of people. For this particular concept, media coverage is most likely the largest factor contributing to success. The content, also needs to be engaging, however, coverage by news and social media will spread transparency at a more rapid pace.

The location is also of great importance, as hotspots and areas with great population density will allow the content to be digested by a large audience. Examples of such areas include tourist attractions and areas with large signage such as New York’s Times Square, with its abundance of large billboards and screens. The largest disadvantage of these areas is the inability or difficulty to prompt some form of interaction due to the amount of people and also the placement of screens/billboards and other outlets. A space however, that encourages interaction, at the cost of less participants, is a museum or gallery space. At the sacrifice of ease of view and access, a gallery space can provide more information and more content that can be interacted with. As such, I will continue forward with this concept in the space of a gallery or museum space.

The content for the museum/gallery can be in the form of installations throughout the space. I’ve identified two possibilities, one of which could be a linear progression that portrays the narrative and history behind hackers and the other possibility being installations throughout the space that each has its own purpose and story. The design I propose is a combination of the two – by having small spaces within the exhibit space that have some relation to one another.

Examples of the smaller spaces include installations that display the largest hackings and data breaches to occur, such as eBay, Target and Sony’s hackings that accounted to over 100 million records being hacked from each company (Allen 2016). The aim of every space should be to be immersive, either with interactivity or by being physically immersive such as in teamLab’s Immersive Inauguration of Pace Art and Technology (Powers 2016). Some data visualization spaces can be purely informational without interaction, whilst others, could have, for example, a way for users to move time back and forth to see which stakeholders are affected and the hackers’ process at a given point in time. This form of visualization would show the user when and how fast particular stakeholders such as government authorities become involved, or if they notice at all. The space should be divided into white, black and grey zones, each symbolizing white hat, black hat hackers and the grey zone, which could be where it is difficult to judge if they are politically correct or incorrect. The importance in establishing these three different spaces, is to provide clarity in the process of shedding transparency on the issue, as the three distinct colours will allow the audience to differentiate between ethical and malicious hackers. The aforementioned examples of the eBay, Target and Sony hackings would be in the black zone when stakeholders include black hat hackers and are influenced by malicious hackers, however, there could also be a similar space in the white zone that tells the same narrative from the white hat hackers perspective and their respective stakeholders.

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teamLab’s Immersive Inauguration of Pace Art and Technology / An example of an immersive space, the tone and physical immersion is similar to some of my design proposals 

 

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A screen capture of the Norse Attack Map, this is a relatively “calm” map

Another possible installation is an immersive space or room that displays Norse’s Attack Map in real time. Norse is the largest threat detection network and intelligence agency in the world, they specialize in detecting “attacks, uncovering breaches and tracking threats” (Norse 2016). Several walls in the room could be dedicated to portraying the map itself and one wall for displaying the “attack origins, attack types, attack targets and live attacks” (Norse Attack Map 2016) data. A tablet or kiosk could be used to hone in on one location which would alter the portrayal of the map on the walls (zoom in or out and movement of the map). This would provide transparency on not only hackers, but also transparency on how prevalent, ongoing and widespread the issue is. There should also be an option to replay past cyber warfare on the map. One wall could also be dedicated to typographically displaying facts about cyber warfare, the various hackers, important events and more. To make the experience more immersive, surround sound audio should definitely be considered, either in the form of ambience, sound effects and/or voice over narration.

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A more active map that portrays a cyber war in progress

Overall, the proposal encompasses a mixture of visualization and service design to accomplish bringing transparency to the issues surrounding hackers by portraying the data and information in an immersive and engaging way that prompts the user to interact with the installments throughout the gallery space. By creating engaging content, the success of the overall space will also lead to opportunities to media exposure which will further shed transparency on the issue. Ultimately, the space aims to exhibit original content as well as existing content, such as the Norse Attack Map in an environment that prompts interaction and conveys the information in an easily digestible manner.


Sources

Allen, M. 2016, Datafloq – Hacking, Data Breaches & Cyber Warfare, Datafloq, viewed 12 September 2016, <https://datafloq.com/read/hacking-data-breaches-cyber-warfare/765>

Norse 2016, Norse Attack Map, Norse, viewed 11 September 2016, <http://map.norsecorp.com/#/>

Powers, E. 2015, TeamLab’s Immersive Inauguration of Pace Art + Technology, Stanford Arts Review, viewed 12 September 2016, <http://stanfordartsreview.com/teamlabs/>

Real-time cyber-attack map shows scope of global cyber war c.2015, Newsweek, viewed 11 September 2016, <http://www.newsweek.com/real-time-cyber-attack-map-shows-scope-global-cyber-war-352886>

 

 

Post 7

The group mapping exercise proved to be insightful, initially I thought it was not going to be very helpful. However, placing the issue into different contexts and identifying the “actors” allowed me to approach the issue from different angles. Particularly in the process of further specifying the issues, emotions and actors mind map, it was interesting to see how others viewed the issue and what biases they had towards certain organisations and processes. For example, our chosen issue was the ABS Census controversy, which had many stakeholders and participants such as the government, politicians, the ABS and more.

It was intriguing to view three other individual’s outlooks on such parties and whether if they were more black and white, being completely biased towards one perspective or if they were more towards the grey zone, and viewed both sides objectively and rationally. Brainstorming together with a partner during the first few maps led to many insights such as certain motives behind organisations behind the issues as well as values such as maintain the status quo and fear of data exposure through Wiki Leaks, which I would not have considered by myself.

Much of what I gathered during this experience is each individual’s perception towards a certain person, organization or issue and how strongly they felt towards it, to prompt change, I feel it is imperative to understand both ends of the spectrum of an issue rather than blindly being biased towards one side. Thus for the particular issue of data security and online privacy, to create change, there needs to be transparency shed on the responsibilities of the “actors” involved so the general public can have an informed opinion. It would also be worth researching into the various outlooks that the public has on the issue on the issue of data privacy and security, why they take a certain stance and how much they know about the issue and its “actors” in forming that opinion.

Web Scraping Post 6

My chosen social media platform for the web scraping task is Twitter. It allows users to post short tweets and also has includes an advanced search function that allows users to sort through tweets based on words, phrases and tweets from certain people or mentioning people. In general, it is a social media system that prompts users to “retweet” tweets of interest, thus providing more recognition and attention to said tweet. One of the more unique features of twitter, however, is the hashtag system, in which tweets have hashtags to collectively group them together.

This would form the premise of sorting through hashtags to find relevant tweets and also to contribute and view which hashtags are trending. Another unique feature that could be viewed in both a positive and negative context is the 140 character limit that forces users to keep their message succinct, this allows for tweets to be digestible before users lose interest, however, it would often require users to tweet multiple times to get their entire message across. Due to this limitation, users often link to external websites in their tweets.

 

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Through the use of the Twitter Archive add-on for Google Sheets, most of the process if automated and a spreadsheet is also produced for the user. The user firstly is required to enter a search rule, the data that can be entered includes limiting the results by phrases, words, by author, by dates, hashtags and more (the same functions as allowed in Twitter’s own advanced search). After a search rule is defined and the search begins, Twitter Archive begins searching for the relevant tweets and archiving the tweets into a spreadsheet. If there are no results shown, or if the results are not relevant, the user should delete the search rule and create another search rule by either broadening the search terms or having more specificity. Once the results are displayed however, the tweets can be sorted by data, screen name, full name, tweet text, tweet ID, which application was used to submit the tweet, followers and more. To access tweets, the tweet ID needs to be clicked on, which will redirect the user to the twitter website with the containing tweet. The Twitter Archiver also automates the process further by collecting new tweets which fall in the search rule every hour.

 

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I ran through my automated system several times and found that two search rules provided many insights as well as points for discussion. Particularly in the first rule, which yielded thousands of results and many of which appears to be retweets and upon further inspection, the “Watch your wallet and change your online passwords” tweet that appears many times throughout is a result of individuals using the “Twittascope” service. In the first search rule, I used at least ten terms and searched mostly for any of those words rather than exact phrases, which resulted in many irrelevant results. It did, however, result in some tweets regarding data centers and data security. The second search rule used less search terms, however, it took advantage of the “exact phrases” and “all keywords” fields, thus providing much more specificity and produced 280 results, however, it produced much more relevant results with tweets such as IBM big data analytics to Dropbox being hacked, the vast majority of the results were on the subject of online privacy and data security. The second rule also narrowed down the authors to more credible and larger sources such as Firefox and news organisations such as The Hacker News. To adjust for more credible sources or popular sources, the results should be sorted by followers, sorting by retweets could also serve a similar function, however, as previously mentioned in the first search rule, there could be many retweets there are of an irrelevant nature.

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Visual design responses to this collection of data could be in the form of an infographic or graph that represents each keyword to give a visual sense of how many users are tweeting with or about the keyword. This could potentially be used to gauge interest or discussion on a certain topic, for example, big data or hacking, with each keyword being mapped out and represented in relation to other keywords, it would allow a researcher to better know who to target and with which topic of discussion. The infographic or graph could also represent other information such as overall retweets and likes of a certain keyword, as a keyword could be common but might not be engaging.

 

Post 5 Primary Research | Online privacy, Data security and surveillance

It was interesting to conduct primary research into a field that ultimately affects every individual to some extent. Data security and privacy is often overlooked by the majority of individuals, partly due to the preconception that the security surrounding our data is secure and almost impenetrable, or otherwise the notion of why someone would target just one individual also provides a sense of security. In other cases, counter measures could be taken to further our own data and online security, however, the process is often left aside due to negligence or laziness. A prime example of this would be Mark Zuckerberg and his taping of his laptop microphone and webcam. It is a simple solution that would prevent hackers from intruding on an individual’s privacy, however, to many, it could seem “excessive” or tedious.

I conducted an interview with a student from a different group and the questions that I asked were as follows:

  • How do you view online security and privacy issues in relation to your everyday tasks? Are you aware of it?
  • What is your view on hackers? Do you know anything in particular of what they do?
  • How technically literate are you? Are you aware of spam emails, fraud and scams when you encounter it?
  • Do you play Pokemon Go? Do you associate any privacy issues with the app?
  • How much time do you spend online? What tasks do you spend most of your time doing? Facebook? Skype? Work?

The primary research I conducted was quite intriguing, as the interviewee is similar in age to me and is also technically literate, thus I was not expecting a large difference in privacy views. For the most part, we had shared opinions in online and data privacy matters, however, I found it interesting that my interviewee put in the extra effort to secure his digital data and privacy, in the sense that, he manually goes through and disables an application’s permissions on his smartphone.

It was also interesting to see the view on the census from another individual, in this case, they hoped to boycott the census by hoping that the census would be hacked again so the government would forfeit the entire application or seek to reform it. As an individual that completed the census and am researching data privacy and security, I still however, felt that the data was to some extent, safe, and perhaps am myself am falling into the perception of “why would an organization target specifically me” out of the millions of data sets that was possibly hacked into. Though, my research participant’s actions and perception on the issue is fascinating as I would have personally not have thought of going to that extent to protect my data.

I deliberately kept my questions broad, as although the topic and issue affects almost every individual, the finer details and specifics, such as differentiating between black and white hat hackers, discussing the various types of cryptography, data mining and analytics and the like are less well known to the general audience. In the case of the Pokemon Go question, by keeping the context contemporary and recent, it allowed me to see how another individual responds to current issues.

The five insights that I gained from this primary research are:

  • An individual’s data security and privacy can be controlled to some extent by the individual themselves
  • Hackers are still struggling to differentiate their practices and their morals and ethics to the general public
  • In relation to being hacked, people appear to associate the risks with individuality, rather than being hacked collectively
  • Millennials are generally the most technologically literate generation as a whole
  • Values play the largest role in determining an individual’s stance on their own data privacy

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The task that I provided to my participant was to check how many times they unlock their phone throughout the day, through the use of an application called Checky. The application essentially counts how many times a user opens their phone. The data gained from this exercise could help form an argument around how an individual’s vulnerability to privacy and security threats can be linked to how often they operate their smartphone. This exercise could be performed across a number of age brackets and demographics to roughly gauge smartphone usage across the age groups and would serve to determine which demographics should be focused on to better inform and solve the problem. It would be interesting to see the relation between online privacy and how often an individual uses their device. Also, it would be possible to observe any associations between frequency of use and technical literacy. The data gained from this exercise however, is just the foundation, without more data, such as habits and why the smartphones are opened, it would be difficult to form a complete argument.

Overall the primary research task was insightful and the interview was an effective method for gathering data from a source that is affected by the issue. However, I do feel that the questions I posed were slightly too broad and too simple, and should be narrowed down and more specific to garner more complex answers. I initially thought that the issue required more transparency but after this primary research, it appears that the Millennials have are aware of the issue and perhaps the transparency needs to be shed more for the older generations.

 

Post 3 Mapping and Images | Online Privacy, Data Security and Surveillance

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The mind map that my group created ultimately broke the stakeholders and user groups into Government, Marketing bodies and Businesses. Within it, we specified the categories futther into laws, demographics, consumers and more, as well as brainstorming recent issues such as the Census and trends that could be exploited in terms of privacy and security, such as Pokemon Go.

You are not safe online

An infographic that displays information on general online privacy and data security. It relates heavily to the many sources I have gathered, particularly how in one section it states that in 2010 and 2011 Google and Facebook were tracking individuals’ online activity. The infographic aims to inform its audience by stating facts, such as how many people are victim to identity theft per year, as well as providing tips and prompting action through by comparing two situations.

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How to make the most of big data

This image simplifies big data into a process, and conveys the notion of how data is only useful if properly organised or analysed. As seen from the graphic, insights can be gained through data which helps to find a better solution to the problem.

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Privacy and copyright for photographers: What you need to know

A real life application and scenario of data privacy and data security. In this case, it is photographers’ and the images that they capture and the laws surrounding the use of their “data” and what legal actions can be taken. It lists the privacy issues and concerns that photographers should be wary of and also the processes and actions they should take when releasing and capturing photographs in different scenarios and situations.

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Mark Zuckerberg tapes MacBook camera and microphone

A photograph of Mark Zuckerberg, that upon closer examination, it can be seen that his Macbook’s microphone and camera are covered with tape. This portrays his approach on online privacy and surveillance. This particular photograph relates to one of my sources in which it goes further in detail on why Zuckerberg covered his camera and even his choice of using a different email client, as a possible further measure of data security.

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The data science industry who does what

An infographic detailing the more human cantered side of big data and data as a whole. It informs on the different data science roles and their various skills and coding languages necessary for employment. Roles include data scientists, data analysts, data architects, data engineers, statistians, database administrators, business analyst and data and analytics manager, each with their own subtitle to make understanding their role easier.

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Stefan Rigo

A photograph of Stefan Rigo, a hacker that recently and narrowly escaped going to prison for his offences, however, he still must serve over 200 hours of community service and is on the sexual offenders’ register for seven years. His offences include hacking into victims’ webcams and watching them for five to twelve hours per day, while they were on their computer, engaging in Skype conversations or as long as they were in the line of sight of the webcam. He also stole passwords, read email conversations, and stole bank details and more.

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World population infographic

A graph designed to give the illusion of a 3-D plane, provides statistics on the world’s population in every country. The bars on the left are representative of the population in each country in 2010, and the bars on the right represent the growth the country has experienced in the previous decade. The bars are representative of the population and in this case, is a resulting visualisation from data sets that were collected through data surveillance and big data.

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Oversharing: Your biggest security risk could be you

An infographic that prompts discussion into online privacy and data security. It humanises the process, shedding transparency on the individual user’s role in relation to their own data privacy and security. More importantly, it informs the audience on what data they intentionally give and what data they unintentionally, or unknowingly also give. It places more importance on the user’s role in their own data security and prompts action by informing that they have control over their own data.

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Battery status tracking

his photograph of a smartphone that is low on battery is in relation to one of my sources that I have collected, which discusses on the issue of battery statuses being used to track consumers. This has raised privacy concerns among researchers stating that this data could be used in data surveillance against users.

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How hackable is your life

n infographic detailing on specifically how many parts of a user’s daily routine is subject to data security. It details points of entries for hackers, such as computers, social media, webcams and more. It also goes into greater detail how this data (skype, social media information, webcam and smartphone) can be used against the user.

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Sources

Abegglen M. 2012, Low battery Nokia Lumia 800¸Flickr, viewed 24 August 2016, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/twicepix/6997580445>

DigitalGuardian 2015, Oversharing: Your biggest security risk could be you, DigitalGuardian, viewed 25 August 2016, <https://digitalguardian.com/blog/oversharing-your-biggest-security-risk-could-be-you-infographic>

Mark Zuckerberg tapes MacBook camera and microphone 2016, The Guardian, viewed 24 August 2016, <http://cdn.bgr.com/2016/06/mark-zuckerberg-tapes-macbook-camera-mic.jpg?quality=98&strip=all>

Montanez, A. 2013, World population infographic, Behance, viewed 24 August 2016, <https://www.behance.net/gallery/World-Population-Infographic/8248969>

Photograph of Stefan Rigo c.2014, WeLiveSecurity, viewed 26 August 2016, <http://www.welivesecurity.com/2015/10/09/webcam-hacker/>

Springboard 2016, The data science industry who does what, Visualistan, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.visualistan.com/2016/06/the-different-data-science-roles.html>

The Huffington Post 2013, How hackable is your life?, The Huffington Post, viewed 24 August 2016, <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/06/protect-data-hackers_n_3671138.html>

uSamp 2013, How to make the most of big data, Visually, viewed 24 August 2016, <https://visual.ly/how-make-most-big-data>

You Are Not Safe Online n.d., TheArtHunters, viewed 24 August 2016, <https://www.thearthunters.com/infographic-are-we-being-safe-online/>

WhoIsHostingThis 2016, Privacy and copyright for photographers: What you need to know, Visualistan, viewed 23 August 2016, <http://www.visualistan.com/2016/07/privacy-and-copyright-for-photographers-what-you-need-to-know.html>

 

Blog Post 4: Pentagram’s Rebranding/”Evolution” of MasterCard’s identity

The new MasterCard branding / Pentagram 2016, New MasterCard branding, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://www.pentagram.com/#/blog/132700&gt;
Evolution of MasterCard branding / Pentagram 2016, Evolution of MasterCard branding, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://www.pentagram.com/#/blog/132700&gt;

The MasterCard branding project wished to tackle the issue of optimizing the brand for digital contexts which is an “increasingly important part of MasterCard’s business”, whilst at the same time aiming to highlight and emphasize “connectivity and seamlessness” (Pentagram 2016). The end result was a clean logo with two vibrant intersecting circles with a lowercase “contemporary sans serif that is FF Mark” indicating “mastercard”, as the goal was to “generate a completely coordinated system of shapes, colours and typography” (Pentagram 2016). Particularly the three colours in the logo, over hundreds of tests were conducted to find the “perfect hues” that’d allow for the logo to work in every environment – print or web, and on any coloured background (Pentagram 2016). The emerging practice behind the process was viewing the problem through a historical context, looking back at the evolution of MasterCard logo over the course of its inception. By examining the previous logos, Pentagram took the most effective patterns, namely, the two simple overlaying geometric circles used in the 1968 to 1979 logos, whilst opting to go in the direction of the brighter colours seen in the 1990 and 1996 logos. The 1969 “master charge” type could be seen as an inspiration behind the new “mastercard” type, with the latter adopting a modern sans serif with larger x-heights and bowls to more effectively form a contemporary aesthetic. Pentagram also identified a pattern that was not as effective, which was, the interlacing effect of the two circles, starting from 1990 onwards. It conveyed the notion of connectivity however it does not portray the idea of seamless and effortless connections (Pentagram 2016), especially in a digital space.


Sources

Pentagram 2016, Blog details | Pentagram, Pentagram, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://www.pentagram.com/#/blog/132700>

Blog Post 2 – Online Privacy, Data Surveillance & Data Security

Managing the virtual boundaries: Online social networks, disclosure, and privacy behaviours

By Mary Helen Millham and David Atkin | June 27, 2016 

Both the authors belong to the University of Connecticut, with Millham being a Doctoral student and Atkin being a Professor of Communication at the university. They are writing to inform, as well as to shed transparency on an issue that affects everyone. As quoted by them, they write, that “Online social networks are designed to encourage disclosure while also having the ability to disrupt existing privacy boundaries” (Millham & Atkin 2016). The motivation behind writing the article is that the authors wish to examine the relationship and privacy variables amongst the millennial or “digital natives” cohort that extensively uses social media and networking websites (Millham & Atkin 2016). Atkin mainly researches in communication policy as well as the uses and effects of new media, and has published two other articles on similar subject matter, generally assessing user behavior in the online space, and also online data privacy and censorship. However, it appears that Atkin’s interest in new media is quite recent as, articles published before 2014 are unrelated to this issue, thus it is difficult to label him an expert, more-so rather a contributor. This article appears to eliminate as much opinion based statements as possible, and is structured more like a research report. It presents facts based on heavily and extensively research resources. The article sets itself up by splitting itself into sections, the abstract, then it outlines what the current study is, it then tries to define what privacy is, in its Understanding Privacy section. This would then be followed up by the Methodology and then the Results and Hypothesis sections. In the final section, the Discussion section, the authors draw upon the previous sections to prompt further discussion on the issue. With this paper being more of a study, it is more difficult to determine the author’s position, however, I do agree with the results that are produced. One of the hypothesis’ was that the more risks that someone associated with disclosing their information, the more they associate ownership and their responsibility to that information. This article is particular interesting, in the fact that the author’s position, in this case, the results are quite similar to other authors writing on online privacy concerns, which is quite a common position to take – that being, the broad notion that information security and privacy is exceedingly important. However, the scientific methodology and approach, as well as the human centered behavioral approach as to why and how individuals involve themselves with privacy, data and information is what makes this study marginal and distinctive from other articles.

When is Hacking Ethical?

By Sharif Rezazadehsaber | 2015

Rezazadehsaber, a student of the University at Albany, State University of New York, writes a thesis discussing when and how to determine if hacking is ethical. The paper is quite broad and can extensively be targeted at a scholarly demographic as well as potentially the governments, to raise awareness on “ethical hacking”. The motivation behind this paper was to prompt discussion into the “ideology of ethical hackers” and the surrounding laws that at this moment, do not discriminate between malicious hackers and ethical hackers (Rezazadehsaber 2015). Rezazadehsaber has not published any other articles on the issue, therefore he cannot be labelled an expert in the field of study. This paper however, is rigorously and well researched with many different sources present, there are many facts also presented, however, the bias towards viewing hacking in a positive subtext is clear, which is a result of forming an argument towards it. As previously mentioned, the author is positioned towards shedding transparency on the ethical side of hacking, as well as questioning the effectiveness of current laws that undermine ethical or white hat hackers (Rezazadehsaber 2015). Rezazadehsaber’s position is quite common amongst other authors, however, other individuals and parties such as government bodies, position themselves against ethical hackers.


Sources

Atkin, D., Millham, MH. 2016, Managing the virtual boundaries: Online social networks, disclosure, and privacy behaviours, SAGE Journals, viewed 11 August 2016, <http://nms.sagepub.com.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/content/early/2016/06/23/1461444816654465.full&gt;

Rezazadehsaber, S. 2015, When is Hacking Ethical?, M. Arts Thesis, University at Albany – State University of New York, viewed 11 August 2016, <http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/science/docview/1694582847/34429B3BFE134A0CPQ/3?accountid=17095&gt;

 

Blog Post 1 – Online Privacy, Data Surveillance & Data Security

Ethical hackers: How hiring white hats can help defend your organisation against the bad guys

Businesses and government organisations are starting to recruit ethical hackers to ensure their security processes are up to scratch.

By Aimee Chanthadavong | June 20, 2016 | Tech Republic

This article is written by Aimee Chanthadavong, a journalist that has completed a degree in journalism and covers topics ranging from business, retail, manufacturing and travel. She belongs to a corporation – ZDNet and regular writes articles across multiple fields (Chanthadavong 2016). The article is written and directed to inform about the other side of hacking that many are not familiar with. In this case, informing about the existence and process of “white hat” or ethical hackers (Chanthadavong 2016). Chanthadavgon has written on the topics of cyber security and online privacy in a broader context in other articles, however, it is difficult to label her an expert as she writes on many disciplines and fields rather than focusing on one. The article is mostly factual, with some opinionated perspectives from other individuals, an example being “Hackers aren’t necessarily criminals; they’re just people who are trying to mould the world around them into the world they want it to be, which also sounds very similar to all good people” (Chanthadavong 2016). Chanthadavong writes in a position that appeals to the society and general morals and ethics, portraying the “black hat” hackers as the “bad guys” (Chanthadavong 2016) to more effectively inform the audience of ethical hackers and their contributions.

Mark Zuckerberg tapes over his webcam. Should you?

Does covering his laptop camera and microphone with tape make Facebook’s boss paranoid, or are they really after him? Probably a bit of both

By Alex Hern | June 22, 2016 | The Guardian

Alex Hern, a technology reporter from the Guardian writes this article on online privacy and surveillance involving Mark Zuckerberg cover his microphone and laptop camera with tape (Hern 2016). It is directed at the general public and serves to inform on this decision whilst providing case studies and examples of individuals’ computers microphones and webcams being hacked into. The main motivation behind this article is to prompt discussion and shed perspectives on why Zuckerberg covered his camera and microphone – whether it be if someone is truly hacking into him or if it is just paranoia. Hern has written on other privacy issues concerning other forms of new media such as Facebook’s lack of privacy settings and even battery statuses being used to track your online footprint (The Guardian 2016). Through this editorial styled article, there is an obvious bias towards the encouragement to follow in Zuckerberg’s decision. “So should you copy Zuckerberg? Probably. It doesn’t hurt, most of the experts do it, and it could minimise damage – even if it’s just emotional – in the case of a catastrophic hack” (Hern 2016), is a clear indication of the Hern’s position and also a subjective call to action that is easily be empathised by the masses. Though, I agree with the point made that I’d rather be more careful than sorry, I believe the hassle of taping and removing the tape when one wants to use their camera and microphone would be off-putting to the majority to implement this security measure in the first place.

Census 2016: NSW Privacy Commissioner concerned over ‘range of risks’

By Natasha Bita| August 1, 2016 | The Daily Telegraph

Natasha Bita of The Daily Telegraph and The Australian, writes a comparative and factual piece on the state of the current 2016 Census. The article aims to inform the Australian public on the controversial change, and how it provides “richer and dynamic statistical picture of Australia through the integration of Census data with other survey and administrative data” through the collection of citizens’ names and addresses (Bita 2016). Within the article, both ends of the spectrums are covered and allowed for analysis, as privacy and data security advocates are quoted listing the range of risks associated with the change and also the Australian Bureau of Statistics responses to the nation’s concerns. Bita’s expertise lies in writing on the state of Australian politics and education, as seen from her prior articles and has not written any other articles specifically on the Census, however, she has written on other concerns regarding the healthcare and education system (The Australian 2016). As Bita wrote this article to compare the two perspectives and to inform the audience, there is no obvious bias, nor is there her own position and perspective on the issue. However, I do agree with the risks that are listed in the article, yet, I feel that the majority of the public is also overreacting to the change, as almost everyone has already left their footprint online or has important information stored on other corporations’ servers that may not necessarily be fully secure either.

What big data can reveal about your staff

Businesses and large corporations struggle to digest dense data.

By Karen Evans| July 18, 2016 | PC World

Karen Evans is a managing director at Asia Pacific at Acendre, with over 20 years of experience in talent acquisition, business development, management and recruitment (LinkedIn 2016). She writes this article aiming at business directors, managers and CEOs. With having over two decades of firsthand experience in the field, it can be said that she is an expert with her abundance of primary experience. However, it can also be argued that she is not necessarily an expert in big data, but her respective human resources and business fields. Evans has written other articles pertaining to staff recruitment and strategy, however, it is not necessarily about the relationship between big data and business needs (LinkedIn 2016). Evans writes about how big data can improve business performance through analytics tools (Evans 2016), and includes many facts and as well strategies that businesses’ could implement, there is a clear bias in viewing big data as a solution (Evans 2016). Evans’ position only falls in line with over 50% of organisations, wherein at least 40% of organisations do not consider using big data as a possible solution in human resources and business management (Evans 2016). I also concur on the stance that Evans’ has taken, as from a business standpoint, it should be in their greatest interest to adopt new technologies to maximize their potential growth and success.

Computer experts call Census a trainwreck and demand proof of DDoS attack, saying data can’t be trusted

By Kara Vickery and Rod Chester| August 11, 2016 | News Corp Australia Network

Following the Census, Kara Vickery and Rod Chester, national political and technology reporters for News Corp Australia respectively, reports on the cyber-attack during the aforementioned census. The article is written in a manner that aims to presents facts and perspectives to the audience, in this case, the Australian public. The article saw the prime minister shifting blame to the ABS and opposing parties blaming the prime minister. As such there was a hint of bias in the article with headers such as “Analysis: Census Fail and Then Lame Excuses” (Vickery & Chester 2016). The motives behind writing such an article is clear, to inform the Australian public, however, it can also be argued that it is subconsciously calling the public to action with its slight biases. Vickery has written on other political issues but is mainly a healthy reporter and Chester writes broadly about technology, therefore they cannot be labelled as experts in this particular field. This particular as well does not state their perspectives or standings on the issue and is more rather a condensation of facts and opinions to form a discussion and debate. However, as previously stated, the underlying bias in the article is a hint at their position, which is that of concern of their data security as well as the initial opposition to the Census change. This is an understandably common position to take, and I also agree as there is no concrete evidence to prove whether or not any data was extracted.


In particular, Evans’, Chanthadavong’s and Hern’s positions are especially interesting. Evans’ position on how big data can greatly help with business management, strategy and recruitment is intriguing as it applies concepts of data into a real world context that can result in a progressive outcome. It would be interesting to research why over 40% of businesses still refuse or are oblivious to big data as a business solution (Evans 2016). I am also curious as to what other contexts and applications big data is used for in. Chanthadavong’s stance on shedding transparency on ethical hackers is different, as it proposes a solution that not many people are aware of, as the word “hacker” has a negative stigma attached to it. I would also like to investigate into the process behind ethical hacking and case studies of large corporations utilising white hat hackers (Chanthadavong 2016). It would be particularly interesting to further investigate Hern’s position on cyber safety and data security in the context of everyday lives as it would be intriguing to see what other exploits in technology in our everyday routine could pose as a privacy threat.


Sources

Bita, N. 2016, Census 2016: NSW Privacy Commissioner concerned over ‘range of risks’, The Daily Telegraph, 1 August, viewed 2 August 2016, <http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/census-2016-nsw-privacy-commissioner-concerned-over-range-of-risks/news-story/2c0dd101f12998ac8414f1e8bc8cd334>

Chanthadavong, A. 2016, Ethical hackers: How hiring white hats can help defend your organisation against the bad guys, Tech Republic, 20 June, viewed 8 August 2016, <http://www.techrepublic.com/article/ethical-hackers-how-hiring-white-hats-can-help-defend-your-organisation-against-the-bad-guys/>

Chester, R., Vickery, K. 2016, Computer experts call Census a trainwreck and demand proof of DDoS attack, saying data can’t be trusted, News Corp Australia Network, August 11, viewed August 12 2016, <http://www.news.com.au/technology/computer-experts-call-census-a-trainwreck-and-demand-proof-of-ddos-attack/news-story/02be90900b3c7c1b2868df96a990e989>

Evans, K. 2016, What big data can reveal about your staff, PC World, viewed 11 August 2016, <http://www.pcworld.idg.com.au/article/603588/what-big-data-can-reveal-about-your-staff/>

Evans, K. 2016, Karen Evans, LinkedIn, viewed 11 August 2016, <https://www.linkedin.com/in/karen-evans-a82bb75>

Hern, A. 2016, Mark Zuckerberg tapes over his webcam. Should you?, The Guardian, 22 June, viewed August 10 2016, <https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jun/22/mark-zuckerberg-tape-webcam-microphone-facebook>

The Australian 2016, Natasha Bita, The Australian, viewed 9 August 2016, <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/author/Natasha%20Bita>

The Guardian 2016, Alex Hern, The Guardian, viewed 8 August 2016,  <https://www.theguardian.com/profile/alex-hern>