In discussing my draft proposal, the key feedback I got was to suggest me focus more on my point collect system instead of the food event, as the point collect system sound more feasible. Originally, I thought a food event at school could create more fun for students and provide students more options of food choice at school. However, to eat healthy at school is not enough to correct their eating habits, they should seek out healthy options for themselves in whatever environment they are in, even in school holidays. Moreover, the event did not clear the boundary between unhealthy food, healthy food, and whole food. For instances, the fats used in salad dressing are necessarily healthy fats. There is still much need to refine and improve.
On the other hand, my point collect system has a lot of merits. As this system can work in a various environment, rather than just in school. Apps can provide more information to users such as the location of the restaurant, the menu of the restaurant and the fat used on food. It is more flexible and doable. In conclusion, I think I should build my entire proposal, and used the food event might be a good idea as a one-off activities that travels around to different schools as part of the initial promotion of the idea.
Base on my reflection, I came up with this revised proposition below.
Eat green to win!
Due to lack of regulation of unhealthy fast food advertising and various advantages of fast food, fast food industry are extremely successful. Nowadays, fast food advertisements are everywhere on social media, especially on Facebook and Instagram. With it low price and convenience, more and more adolescents and young adults prefer to eat fast food even they aware it is unhealthy. On the other hand, the boundary between healthy and unhealthy food are unclear. The label on food packaging and advertising such as ‘sugar-free’, ‘organic’ and ’98% less fat’ are very common. However, are they really that healthy?
In order to encourage people to continuously eat healthy food and correct their eating habits, and provide people a guide to finding and have healthy food, the Grwin project is here to help!
Adolescents and young adults, especially high school students and university students who need to eat out and have the ability to pay a small amount of money for their food.
Students who want to save money on food.
Students who love healthy food and/or don’t know where to find healthy food.
To promote whole/healthy food.
To give people direction of finding healthy food.
To incentivise people to eat whole food as well rather than just ‘healthier’ fast food. (i.e. the fats used in salad dressings are not necessarily healthy fats)
To encourage adolescent and young adults to eat healthily.
To help people build a healthy eating habit
More people know where to find healthy food and whole food.
People loved to eat healthy food and whole food when they eat out.
People willing to continue eating healthy food and whole food and form a good eating habit.
What is Grwin?
Grwin is a point collect system that will be visualise as a mobile application. Anyone can download this application for free and with your name, email address and location for registration. Restaurant and school canteen that support Grwin project will be shown on the application, however, only healthy food and whole food can gain points. For example, a school canteen that joined Grwin project sell hash brown and fruit salad, the user won’t gain any point for purchasing a hash brown, but a fruit salad will. In order to incentivise people to eat whole food rather than just ‘healthier’ food, more point can be gained by purchasing whole food. The healthier you eat, the more you gain! For example, a garden salad could gain more points than a chicken salad. Points can be exchanged to discount coupon for your next healthy meal. The aim of this reward is to help people build a healthy eating habit.
1. The restaurant that supports Grwin can stick a Grwin door sticker on their door or windows. (like Zomato)
2. The restaurant can use their existed menu and stick a small Grwin sticker with reward point next to food that’s healthy. Grwin is happy to provide free sticker for the restaurant that supports Grwin.
3. For the restaurant don’t have healthy food yet but willing to join Grwin and restaurant don’t want to change their current menu can create a new Grwin special menu that only has healthy food and whole food.
4. The application user can see the restaurant that supports Grwin and their menu on the application. Only healthy food will display on the app’s menu. The exactly calorie and amount of sugar, salt and fat will be displayed as well.
* Grwin will need the test all Grwin food included the calorie and the amount of sugar, salt and fat of food in order to provide Grwin user an absolutely healthy menu.
Grwin project is more than just an app, we also provide an event – Grwin Festival. Grwin Festival is a one-off event that only sells healthy food and whole food, and will be a travels around to different schools (area) as part of the initial promotion. The restaurant that supports Grwin are welcome to have a stall for themselves to promote their business and Grwin!
In week 6’s class, we also did some brainstorming exercise with our usual groups. We helped each other to explore our own issue topic and gave feedback to each other’s ideas about the possible proposals.
We began with clarifying the problem within our issues topic in 5 simple questions:
Who does the problem affect?
What are the boundaries of the problem?
When does the problem occur? When does it need to be fixed?
Where does the problem occur?
Why is this issue important?
This exercise helped me to clean up and break down the existed problems and actors involved in my issue topic. My group mates are very helpful as well, they gave me lots of valuable opinions and feedback about my ideas.
After that we analysed our problems, we started to note down a few possible proposals for our issue topic.
The strengths of this group brainstorming exercises are we can get feedback from each other which can help to develop our own issue topic deeper and pushed it further. As we were working on a different aspect of the obesity and healthy living, everyone had different opinions and ideas on different issues and the way of problem-solving, it is interesting to hear different ideas and opinions, and gain different feedback.
The weakness of this process is we only have a very limited time. In order to let everyone share their ideas and gain enough feedback, we have to present our ideas and give feedback as fast as possible, which make the whole class extremely rushed. Moreover, as we were all studied on a different aspect of obesity and healthy living, it is possible that we don’t fully understand each other’s ideas and not able to give them an appropriable or a collect feedback.
Overall, this session is quite helpful at this stage. It really refreshed my mind and pushed me a little bit forward.
During week 6’s tutorial, we finally began to brainstorm the possibilities of design response to our issue topic. After five weeks of brainstorming and mind mapping, I am clear that my issue topic is about the affect of the branding and advertising in the fast food industry to individuals, especially in the adolescent. To begin with the brainstorm, we had been given a task to analyze the problem statement by five simple questions. I came up with the following result:
Analysing the problem
Who does the problem affect?
The key stakeholders involved in this problem are the fast food companies and the workers such as a designer, photographer, and writer who work for the fast food companies. The advertising and marketing of fast food companies directly affect consumer’s eating habit and encourage them to purchase their products. The consumers are basically everyone, especially children, teenagers and young adults. The fast food companies targeted them as main audiences by using a coupon, discount and small gifts, such as toys.
What are the boundaries of the problem?
There are three boundaries in this problem. Firstly is the lack of regulation in the fast food advertisement, especially on a digital platform. Unhealthy fast food advertisement is everywhere on social media apps, such as Facebook and Instagram. Secondly, is the label on fast food advertising. The label such as ‘organic’, ‘healthy choice’, ‘sugar-free’ and ‘less fat’ appeared in much fast food advertisements, included McDonald. This label directly affects consumer’s decision making. Lastly is the boundary between healthy and unhealthy fast food is unclear. It is obvious that the advertising and marketing of healthy fast food companies are unsuccessful. There is the lack of healthy fast food advertisement nowadays.
When does the problem occur? When does it need to be fixed?
This problem has occurred for a very long time since the fast food companies were found, and this problem needs to be fixed immediately. Fast food companies played an important role to help the grow of worldwide obesity rate, especially in childhood obesity. Once we had a bad eating habit, it is hard change. As we all know obesity could cause various chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure. Therefore, this problem needs to be fixed immediately.
Where does the problem occur?
This problem has occurred everywhere as obesity is a worldwide issue.
Why is this issue important?
The worldwide obesity rate, especially the childhood obesity rate keeps increasing due to the fast food companies targeted children and teenagers as main audiences. According to my research, the fast food companies spend lots of money on their advertising and marketing, such as providing a kid’s meal with free toys, which strongly affect children’s eating habit, and eating habit is hard to change. The unhealthy fast food contains lots of sugar, salt, and fat, which will cause obesity and various chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure. Therefore, this problem is important.
According to my brainstorming exercise above, I came up with the following problem statement:
To design a way that can promote healthy fast food industry and correct adolescent‘s eating habits.
Base on the problem statement above, I came up with the following five possible design response:
+ Service Design: To create an application and/or a website for healthy fast food delivery. There are lots of food delivery application, such as Domino, EatNow, and Foodora. It could be nice to have an application and/or a website that’s for healthy fast food delivery only. The calorie, fat and the among of sugar and salt will be display clearly, so the user can simply see how much calorie he/she intake in this meal.
+ Service Design: To create a personal calorie intake guide application. This interactive application will give user suggestion of daily calorie intake base on user’s health information. This application will have a calorie calculator and will allow the user to search the calorie, fat and the among of sugar and salt of the food. Beyond that, the healthy fast food advertisement will appear in this application as ‘recommended food choice’.
+ Visualisation Practices: To encourage more designers to help existed and/or new healthy fast food companies to improve their branding and advertising, especially packaging. Most healthy fast food packagings nowadays are focused on their label such as organic and healthy choice, however, their brand images are unclear (see photograph above). To encourage more designer to help to improve healthy fast food’s branding and advertising is a good way to encourage the consumer to purchase healthy fast food and prevent worldwide obesity rate grown.
+ Generative Systems / Service Design: To organise a small event or small party once a week to promote healthy fast food industry. The event could conduct in a various small park in different districts on every Sunday morning when the parents will take their children out and adolescent has free time. The event will only sell cheap healthy fast food, and provide a limited amount of free gifts such as pencil and hand cream, or coupons for healthy fast companies when consumer purchase the food. The aim of this is to encourage the consumer to keep purchasing their product on another period, such as purchase online.
+ Generative Systems / Service Design: Similar to my last possible design response, to organise a small event once a week to promote healthy fast food industry. The event could conduct on the lunchtime in a school day once a week. This event could conduct on any school, especially high school and university, where the student has the ability to purchase food. The event will only sell cheap healthy fast food, and provide a limited amount of free gifts such as pencil and hand cream, or coupons for healthy fast food companies when consumer purchase the food. The aim of this event is to encourage student eat healthily and acknowledge more healthy food brands.
Due to the lack of regulation on unhealthy fast food advertising, unhealthy fast food advertisements were anywhere, especially on a digital platform, such as Facebook and Instagram. As most adolescents browsed these social media apps every day, the fast food advertisements have strongly affected their eating habit. On the other hand, lack of healthy fast food advertisement and the unsuccessful branding of healthy fast food companies caused the lack of acknowledging of the healthy fast food brands. In order to promote healthy fast food industry to adolescent, a small promote event of healthy fast food at high school and university once a week is necessary. The target audience in this project are students in high school and university as they have the ability to pay a small amount of money for their lunch.
The small promote event should have several small stalls from different food companies. Only healthy food are allowed to sell in this event, included food that’s ready to serve and instance package food. In order to encourage students to purchase the healthy food in this event, a point collect system will available as apps. Students can download this application for free, then enter their basic information such as school name, student name and student id for the register. Every time when a student purchase a food in the event, his/her receipt will contain a bar code, simply scan this barcode via the app will gain points on student’s account. The point can be exchanged for a discount coupon of different fast food companies. The aim of this system also encourages student to keep purchasing healthy fast food not just in the event, as the discount coupon could be used on the healthy fast food’s website and/or their shop as well. Moreover, some small promotion will appear on this app as well, such as a ‘like’ for a healthy fast food company on Facebook will give the student a small discount on their next purchase. This could become a very good advertisement on the digital platform, as his/her Facebook friend will see this action via their Newsfeed. Thus more and more people will acknowledge this healthy fast food brand.
In conclusion, this is a win-win project. The healthy fast food companies only need to build a temporary small stall once a week for this event, the stalls could be a table with the brand logo on, and the companies will gain more awareness of their brands. On the other hand, as this event only sell cheap healthy food and have a point collect system, students can save a small amount of money, in the meanwhile, students can correct their eating habits as well.
McDonald, 2015, The Minions have landed!, Poster, viewed 14 September 2016, <http://mitsueki.sg/2015/06/18/minions-fever-hits-singapore-free-toy-with-every-happy-meal-purchased/>.
Asprey Creative, 2015, Monster Health Food Co packaging, Poster, viewed 14 September 2016, <http://www.thedieline.com/blog/2013/4/8/before-after-monster-health-food-co.html>.
Within week five class, I am glad to have an opportunity to work with Lia, Julie and Susan again to undertake the collaborative issue mapping exercise in order to develop and push forward our own issue topic. According to tutor’s instruction, we did two issue maps individually, after we finished our own maps, we gave each other feedback and help to develop each others map. I gain plenty of interesting ideas and research during this exercise. It was a valuable and helpful experience as we were all working on a different aspect in obesity and healthy living.
Within this project, I would like to focus fast food branding and advertising. My group mates helped me to expand my maps specifically. Such as a few possible emotions and movements. The map below has displayed the actors involved in the fast food industry, and a few possible activities/movement and emotions of the actors.
As you can see, obesity and healthy living are a big issue that involves various groups of people even we break down to a specific area. Beyond that, there is a strong connection between a different group of actors. For instance creator such as designers, advertisement writers and photographers play an important role in expanding the fast food industry. They help to create eye-catching advertisements for fast food companies to influence the individual’s eating habits.
Base on the actor map, I create another map to clarify the controversy of my issue.
There are lots of controversy within my issue. The most important issue is the boundary between healthy and unhealthy fast food is unclear. According to Julie’s opinion, she thought Subway is a healthy fast food company because the consumer can choose to add lots of veggies. However, Subway also provides various cheeses and sauces which make their food unhealthy. These have made lots of consumers confused. On the other hand, Susan mentions that the label on the food package and food advertisement also make consumer confused. I believed we all familiar with the word such as ‘organic’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘sugar-free’, however, are they really that healthy? McDonald said they are ‘healthy choice’; Coca-Cola said their products are ‘sugar-free’… I think it is a question that needs to be answered.
In conclusion, I really happy with my final maps. My group mates have been really helpful within this exercise because we were researching different aspect in obesity and healthy living. There are lots of connections between our research which really opened my mind and helped to develop my maps and my final proposal.
For my final proposal, I would like to promote the healthy fast food industry. Firstly, I need to clarify the boundary between healthy fast food and unhealthy fast food. Secondly, it would be nice to help improve a few existed healthy fast food brandings such as their packaging and/or advertising. Thirdly, I would like to promote the healthy fast food on social media platforms such as on Facebook and Instagram.
With the development of technology, Social Media becomes an indispensable element of daily life, it brings together the news, trends and best practices around enterprise social and digital marketing, and provide people opportunities to empower themselves and share their thoughts in an open public platform. Twitter is one of the most popular online social networking services nowadays, it allows user to send and read ‘Tweets’, which are messages of up to 140 characters that can contain images, video and web links. Twitter has described as ‘the SMS of the Internet’ because the user can always access Twitter through SMS as well as website interface and mobile device application. Beyond that, every user’s information and tweets are forced to be public, registered users can read and post tweets, on the other hand, unregistered user can only read tweets. Because of these, News on Twitter breaking faster than anywhere else. Until March 2016, Twitter has more than 310 million monthly active users.
Believe it or not, Twitter has become one of the most powerful database systems at present. Recently, I have been working on the issue of Obesity and Healthy Living, specific in food industry and fast food advertisement. To push my research forward and to insight more people’s thought and response, I did an advance research on Twitter with a number of keywords included ‘fast food’ with ‘ad’/ ‘advertisement’/ ‘advertising’/ ‘packaging’/ ‘design’ / ‘industry’. All data must be written in English only, and can from anywhere in the world. The data were collected from 25 August to 3 September. The map below is the flow chart of my research process.
Within this web scraping practice, I gained a total of 607 Tweets in the result. It is obvious to see the fast food advertisement and the fast food industry has become a very popular topic nowadays. Most of the outcomes are negative, I can see people are not happy with the strong and successful fast food industry nowadays. The GIF below is the outcome of my research.
I summarised the outcome into five key points with a few relevant Tweets.
1. The fast food industry spent a lot of money on advertising and made themselves looks great, however some of the advertisement which aim at children might have some negative influence on children
“#locad_interesting Fast food companies in the U.S. spent about $2 billion in #advertising in 2015. #marketing #media https://t.co/nX2BwZbLHa” – @LocadSmm
“RT @youngevity: “Last year the fast food industry spent over $4 billion on advertising. Now that’s some #food for thought.” https://t.co/Py…” – @Morgantlvory
“The U.S fast-food industry spends approximately $1.6Billion each year on marketing aimed at children -Federal Trade Commission” -@FitnessRetweets
“@ChangeMillieu I sick of big fast food franchises advertising to kids on tv for a start. They get a 100% write off. Tax payer funded adverts” – @CashAnonymous
“As I see it, fast food outfits have targeted small children with their advertising in a ve #AnthonyBourdain #quotes https://t.co/HHGPDwuljN” – @RussoRussel
It is obvious to see the excessive fast food advertisement has become a worldwide issue, fast food advertisements are anywhere in social media. People are complaining fast food companies spend too much money on advertising. Beyond that, the fast food companies also target children by providing them discounts, such as buy one get one free, and toys for children. Because of that, more and more people are worrying these might affect children’s eating habit. The influence of fast food advertisement in children’s eating habit has become is a very popular topic a long while. These tweets above has been retweeted many times.
2. Lots of people hate fast food industry, especially for those advertised by celebrities.
“@andresless how do you kindly say “fuck you and your fast food industry?”” -@whos_eva
“@Jemmyjems_ the fast food industry is being corrupted by haram, so sad” -@Jeregyptan
“RT @myhairisblue: ME: the fast food industry is a systematic plague on our society MY CRUSH: i’m hungry for fries ME: https://t.co/zgiTDxEo…” -@karenstein_bear
“I grew up on McDonald’s – didn’t make the connection. The fast food industry are deceptive murderers. https://t.co/NP990cNHGh” – @TereAlbanese
“#Advertising What a single Tweet from kanyewest did for McDonalds https://t.co/Mb0xZyZY61 — Twitter Advertising (TwitterAds) September 2…” -@Advertis_1ng
Lots of people expressed their abominated and discontented about their thought of fast food industry on Twitter. Some of their attitudes were a little bit rude, they use the F-word on their Tweets to fast food industry. Furthermore, people are not happy with celebrities to preach up the fast food branding. Kanye West apparently random Twitter proclamation that his favourite brand is McDonald, which has been retweeted many times. It is undeniable that could be a great marketing moment for the fast food chain. A research showed that McDonald’s Twitter mentions went up 900% from the hour before Kanye sent out his proclamation to the hour after. However, lots of people were retweeted with a negative comment. People don’t like celebrities advertising fast food branding.
3. Some fast food advertisements seem not that appropriate.
“I know it sounds a bit pedantic but its odd to me that Panthers are advertising cheap fast food when they’re a sport team? #Fatpanthers” -@laura4m11
I completely agree with this tweet. A sports team should not represent to a fast food branding as these could mislead lots of people, especially teenage and young adults and affect their eating habit. In fact, this kind of situation is happening all around the world, this has been shown through the Australian Olympic delegation is representing McDonald; and a very popular sport racing TV show in China called ‘The Amazing Race’ is also representing McDonalds. This is NOT appropriate！
4. Some people think more policies need to be made to strict the fast food advertisement.
“If advertising for cigarettes is not appropriate then why is advertising for chocolates, chips, fast food etc appropriate” -@feelcheatedcom
There are a few people are proposing this issue recently. For instance, Sam Ikin, an online producer for ABC News Digital based in Hobart wrote a news article about this issue over a month ago. Lots of people agreed with Sam, however, the related government departments still NOT pay close attention of this proposal yet. This has disappointed lots of people.
5. Some people think government need to make some measures to support healthy fast food advertisement, while in fact not that many people care about it.
“RT @VLubev: Agree with Corbyn on fast food. We should support healthy fast food, as Corbyn has supported the Kebab Industry Awards. #Salad” -@thatsmabhoy
It is obvious to see the lack of regulation in fast food advertisement. Under the circumstances, supporting healthy fast food industry and advertisement could be a good way to correct people’s eating habit and reduce the obesity rate. Unfortunately, this issue is NOT in popular demand, this has been shown through a ZERO retweet of the tweet.
After the advance research, I gained plenty valuable data and information about people’s thought and response of the fast food industry and the fast food advertisement. Before I am done this web scraping research, I was thinking to design a proposal that against the fast food branding. However, there were already too many articles and news about this issue and I think people already aware the harm of eating fast food. Therefore, for my future visual design, I would like to design a proposal to support the healthy fast food industry.
Zuhora, F. 2016, 5+ Best Twitter Extension for Joomla, Image, viewed at 2 September 2016, <https://www.themexpert.com/blog/best-twitter-extension-for-joomla>.
Long, M. 2013, Seven Things Unique To Twitter, Social Times, viewed at 2 September 2016, <http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/seven-unique-twitter/479794>.
Castillo, M. 2016, What Kanye West's pro-McDonald's tweet did for the fast-food giant, CNBC, viewed at 2 September 2016, <http://www.cnbc.com/2016/08/31/what-kanye-wests-pro-mcdonalds-tweet-did-for-the-fast-food-giant.html>.
Gill, A. 2016, The honest conversation we need to have about fat people, News, 2 August, viewed 2 August 2016, <www.news.com.au/lifestyle/health/health-problems/the-honest-conversation-we-need-to-have-about-fat-people/news-story/e9688705c1e8618895c12bab383b903c>.
Based on the research from the past four weeks, I found fast food company’s success on branding and advertising. Then I started to think, there should be various healthy food companies as well, however, their branding looks not very successful. I have never seen a healthy food advertisement on Facebook or Instagram, and I don’t even have a brand/shop that sold instant healthy food in my mind. To prove my thought, I conducted a primary research about branding in fast food and healthy food companies with a Korean girl, Julie, who is on young generations in the age group of 18 to 25 and struggling with her weight. To began, I asked Julie five simple questions to study her thought and understanding about fast food and healthy food brands.
In your opinions, do you think food choice affect obesity?
Julie: Obesity can be caused by eating habits such as unhealthy choices. For example deep fried foods and instant foods, and large food portions. The calories that you eat must be burnt off by doing a reasonable amount of physical exercise but if you don’t, then you will start gaining weight and if it happens repeatedly, one day you will be overweight/obese.
Can you name 5 fast food brands, and 5 healthy food brands immediately?
Julie: Fast food Brands: McDonald, KFC, Hungry Jacks, Oporto, Domino; Healthy food Brands: Sumo Salad…Maybe Subway? Because Subway has a lot of veggies inside? Not sure of what other healthy food brands because I don’t eat healthily and I don’t eat salad.
Can you list 3 possible reasons why people love fast food and 3 possible reasons why people don’t love fast food?
Julie:The reason why people love fast food is because it’s fast and convenient to buy, it’s delicious, fatty food are always nice, and it’s also cheap. The reason why people don’t like fast food is because it’s unhealthy, The cooking kitchen and process is perceived as unhygienic, and it’s fatty.
Can you list 3 possible reasons why people love healthy food and 3 possible reasons why people don’t love healthy food?
Julie:People love healthy food because it’s healthy, has fewer calories, makes you feel light and maybe they just like the taste of greens. People don’t love healthy food because they might not like the taste of the greens and they are in love with the unhealthy food already and don’t feel necessary to eat healthily.
Where do you draw the line between a healthy food brand and a fast food brand?
Julie: Fast food brands are things that are deep fried, pre-made and served quickly. Although fast food stores also sell salads, they are distinguished as fast foods because their main menus are full of deep fried things are pre-made and ready to go when the order is placed.
At the end of the interview, I asked Julie to Google some images of fast food brands and healthy food brands. The aim of this probe is to study fast food and healthy food’s branding on social media. The two screenshots below are what Julie got.
“The fast foods give me specific brands, whereas, there isn’t really an answer to healthy food brands. I think it is fair to say that there is no answer to healthy food, healthy food can be a standard of how people think. For example, I consider subway a healthy food brand, whereas other people can consider it a fast food. It depends on what you think is healthy.”
Base on the whole primary research process, it is obvious to see fast food companies have done a good work on their branding and advertising. Google ‘fast food’ can always give the audience specific brands, on the other hand, healthy food companies are over insistence with a label instead of their branding, they loved to emphasize words such as green, organic and low fat on their products and wish these words can influence consumer’s decision making. Nevertheless, even young generations aware healthy food are good for body health, they don’t prefer healthy food for their primary food choice. For example, Julie chose to eat less instead of having the salad for diet.
Young generations aware fast food are unhealthy and can cause obesity, but they love fast food because of its conveniences, affordable cost, and nicely taste.
Young generations aware healthy food are green, organic and good for body health, but they do not prefer healthy food for food choice.
Fast food brands are more like a common sense / acknowledging to young generations, everyone knows McDonald, KFC, and Hungry Jacks.
Healthy food brands don’t stand out on young generations, the boundary between fast food and healthy food brands is unclear. They consider healthy food brands are somewhere sell salad and veggies.
Fast food branding is more successful than healthy food branding on social media.
Taskolej, 2014, Healthy Food vs Fast Food, video, viewed 17 August 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evyZh_48ndw>.
IMAXShift® is a new immersive group cycling studio powered by The IMAX Experience® base in America. The studio used the best techniques that exist in experience design and used that technique to change people’s exercise experience. Their first studio opened in Brooklyn, New York a few months ago. The aim of the studio is to encourage people to do exercise and to gain an excited experience while they workout.
Nowadays, many people not interest/dislike exercise because exercise makes them feel bored. Just thinking about exercising in a gym is enough to send many people back to the couch. In addition, lack of exercise is one of the main reason causes obesity rate growth. A research shows that obesity rate in America has doubled in children and has increased by 400% in adolescents over the past 30 years. It is obvious to see a regular gym is not appealing to most people. People dislike exercise is because they get bored.
“Let The IMAX Experience® change the way you think about fitness. Crystal clear audio surrounds you as sharp, hyperreal visuals suck you into the massive screen. A unique ride that leaves you breathless before you even break a sweat.”
To deal with this situation, IMAXShift decided upgraded the regular spin class with an IMAX screen and design to provide people with an immerse moving-going cycling workout experiences. The studio combines video, music, and exercise to help transport people working out to another world like they were in a virtual reality.
The studio room has been designed with 40×34 feet big screen curving around the front of the room and equipped with a 7.1-channel surround-sound system that includes two huge subwoofers built right into the floor. There are 50 Schwinn stationary bikes in the room and the instructor would be on a bike at the front left side of the room, wearing an amplified headset to give user instructions and encouragement. Beyond that, each Schwinn stationary bike has an individual console that allows the user to adjust speed, resistance, and power after every ride, user’s progress will be uploaded to their individual online account automatically from class-to-class. Instructors can provide help and encouragement to surpass user’s fitness goals base on their training record.
“A full sensory workout can create a heightened sense of anticipation as participants “ride” through fantastic landscapes like outer space or dream-like scenarios. By suspending belief, people are thinking less about the workout, as they push themselves further through the experience.”
Even the studio uses the IMAX technology, they are not delivering a real movie to the user. The user won’t be watching a real movie like Star war, X-man, Superman or The Jungle Book while they are exercising. Instead of delivering a real movie, the ImaxShift® used a series of short video segments which had been handcrafted by each individual instructor. For instance, an experience allows the user to soar over the coasts of Hawaii; an experiences allows the user to pedal to the beat with music reactive visuals, etc. More importantly, each class is different and unique, each short video segment would only be played once. The user will never see the same video segment twice and they will have a completely new acoustic and optic experiences that perfectly complements the workout every time!
IMAXShift® is an undoubted successful entertainment and experience design. Although they only provide cycling activity at present, its still open up a range of new option of a future fitness and encourage lots of young adults to try this immersive workout experience. With an IMAX technology and unique experiences with IMAXShift®, exercise has become more engaged and more interesting. More and more young adults and adults would like to try IMAXShift® and continues to IMAXShift® to workout. A record show some studios have also begun incorporating immersive experiences have seen as much as a 25% increase in attendance. Clearly, there has been a growing consumer demand for more engaging exercise experiences, and immersive fitness is meeting it. I am looking forward to having a studio like this in Australia!
MAXShift 2016, The experience, IMAX Corporation, viewed 20 August 2016, < https://imaxshift.com/ >.
CBS News 2016, IMAX takes supersized experience to fitness industry, News Article, CBS Interactive Inc, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/imax-takes-supersized-experience-to-fitness-industry-indoor-cycling-studio/>.
Alton, E. 2016, Could Immersive Fitness Be the Cure for Obesity?, News Article, Entertainment Designer, viewed 20 August 2016, <http://entertainmentdesigner.com/news/experiences/could-immersive-fitness-be-the-cure-for-obesity/>.
The images below are the Stakeholders maps we developed in our group, the issue we are working on is Obesity and Healthy Living. This exercise provides us a good opportunity to explore more stakeholders related to our issue, and the relationship between the stakeholders. The aim of these maps is to clear up what we got and to help developing our own proposal.
(click the images to see the full version)
Base on the Stakeholders map above, we created a chart to list the effective level of elements that could influence obesity, and a chart to list some words from negative to positive.
1 – 10 : More Important – Less Important.
Within this exercise, I found out designer plays an important role in obesity. To encourage obesity, designer helps fast food companies to create posters and advertisements on social media; To prevent obesity, designer invents active design to push people to do more physical activities. Even though there are plenty of reasons and elements that can affect obesity, the designer is always a key stakeholder in obesity and healthy living.
♥ Image Archives
The images below are some designer posters and illustrations that encourage people to keep away from obesity. My collection of images show designers/illustrators has done a lots of works to against obesity.
This illustration uses a visual simile to show teenager spent plenty of time in computer/video games every day. The roots under the boy represent the boy has been sat and play games for a long time. If we look at the illustration carefully, we will find out the boy have a fat waist and fat arms. To spend plenty of time each day directly causes a result of a lack of exercising.
The illustrator is trying to convey the harm of allowing the teenager to play computer/video games for a long time without an appropriate exercise, it is one of the main reasons why teenage obesity rate is keep growing nowadays.
This poster creates a typography children with a bunch of unhealthy/fast food words such as pie, milkshake, and chips to imply children’s eating habit. Childhood obesity has become a serious issue nowadays, parenting and family eating habit is the main reason that causes childhood obesity.
‘He trusts you with his life.’ Children usually eat what his parents gave; Children don’t have the ability to acknowledge food he ate is healthy or unhealthy; Children don’t have the ability to aware if he is becoming or already became obese. The parent plays an important role in children’s eating habit. To prevent childhood obesity, parents must become a good role model and guide them to eat healthy food.
Again, parenting and family eating habits play an important role in childhood obesity. In addition, this illustration also warms people that mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy and while breastfeeding has obesity-prone children. Within this illustration, the mother feed a slice of pizza to the baby. This is a horrible action, it usually won’t happen in real life.
However, lots of research suggests that pregnant and breastfeeding women should not indulge in fatty, sugary and salty foods under the misguided assumption that they are “eating for two.” Lots of women are not aware this potential risk while they are pregnant and breastfeeding, and this causes childhood obesity rate growth.
This poster was created by World Health Eat Responsibly Organization. This poster uses a visual metaphor of a person trying to use a banana to cut himself to convey a message that health food won’t kill people, on the other hand, junk food will.
As we all know, junk food contains overmuch sugar, salt, and fat, which can make people become obese and cause chronic disease such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, etc. The aim of this poster is to tell people to get healthy food and stay away from junk food for our own health.
This is a poster of a documentary called ‘Killer at Large’ directed by Steven Greenstreet, and published in 2008 in America. This documentary was an overview of the political, social effects and problems associated with the rising epidemic of American obesity. The poster itself used a cigarette case to pack the chips and convey a message that chips (junk food) is as much harm as smoking, they both caused chronic disease and cancer in people.
I think the aim of this poster and movie is to point out even smoking and having junk food both caused health issues, people and the American government still haven’t taken any serious action to control it like smoking.
This poster use junk food, sweet, and soda drinks to create a devil face to warn people these foods are not good for health. ‘it’s scary what we put in our bodies’. I like this poster because the devil face looks exaggerated, which created a sense of humor.
The aim of this poster is to prevent people from having junk food, sweet, and soda drinks for health. Again, junk food, sweet, and soda drink contains overmuch sugar, salt, and fat, which can make people become obese and cause chronic disease such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, etc.
This poster was created by OAC (Obesity Action Coalition). This poster uses yellow and black colours to attract people’s attention and create a sense of seriousness.
It is obvious to see the aim of this poster, there are three black men within this poster, two of them are obese, and the texts below said ‘Two in three Americans are obese.’ and ‘ Obesity in linked to more than sixty chronic diseases.’ The aim is to point out the serious issue of obesity rate in America and to let obese people know the harm of keep being obese.
This poster is for a campaign for motivating action against obesity in the United Kingdom. As we all know, obesity is a worldwide issue and obesity can cause various chronic diseases. Instead of keeping warm people how much danger of being obese and/or counting how many people in the world are obese, this poster use love to encourage obese people to lose weight.
‘It’s not about size, it’s about ♥.’Plenty of obese people don’t want to lose weight. Some people think they are fine and they are happy with their size; Some people want to lose weight, but they don’t have a motivation, or just being lazy. But to tell those people to lose weight for the ones they love is a tempting motivation.We all want to do something for the ones we love. I found this poster very touched, and I like how this poster friendly suggest obese people lose weight, such as using the words ‘taking care of yourself’ instead of ‘get a weight loss’ and using the word ‘size’ instead of ‘fat’.
Again, obesity is a worldwide issue. This poster is designed by a Malaysian designer, named Kershin Lee, for ‘another size’ obesity Awareness Campaign. According to research, Malaysians are NOT very concerned about their eating habits, especially during festive seasons (Lee, K. 2012).. Kershin’s idea was to use jeans to deliver a message that holiday and festive do not give you a reason to be overeating. Overeating will cause obesity matter of fact, and 2 in 5 Malaysians were already obese.
I love this poster because of its warm colour tone and its vector style. A colourful poster can attract people’s attention easily and a vector style character can create a sense of humour. To deliver a serious message in a tactful way makes this message become more acceptable for more peoples.
This cute poster is designed by Comic Company. The target audiences of this poster are children and parents. The aim of this poster is to encourage children to eat more healthy fruit and eat fewer sweets. Again, childhood obesity is a serious issue nowadays, children’s eating habit is one of the main reasons that cause obesity. To encourage children to eat more healthy fruit and vegetable is the most effective way to against childhood obesity.
Holcroft, J. 2014, How Completely Nuts Modern Life Has Become, illustration, viewed 19 August 2016, <https://www.good.is/slideshows/modern-life-articles>.
He trusts you with his life. Prevent Childhood obesity, n.d, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/17/6e/e9/176ee90f5abf0880b20c1320919942ad.jpg>.
Hammerstad, K. n.d, Kindergarten Obesity, illustration, viewed 19 August 2016, <http://www.kristianhammerstad.com/#editorial>.
World Health Eat Responsibly Organization, 2011, Live Longer, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <http://eatnexercise.tumblr.com/post/3978823106>.
Killer at Large, 2008, movie poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0903660/>.
Create a Movement, n.d, It's Scary what we put into our bodies, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <https://au.pinterest.com/pin/310818811766139888/>.
Shinkard, A. n.d, Obesity in America Awareness, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <http://www.aaronslinkard.com/Obesity-in-America-Awareness-Poster>.
Fighting against obesity, 2014, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <https://au.pinterest.com/pin/413557178254640290/>.
Lee, K. 2012, A series of obesity awareness posters, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <https://kershinillustrator.wordpress.com/2012/06/16/design-process-obesity-infographic-poster-awareness-campaign/>.
Comic Company, n.d, ‘BEAT THE SWEETS POSTER’, poster, viewed 19 August 2016, <http://www.comiccompany.co.uk/?category=2&collection=244&code=748>.
Inspired by secondary source research, I found my strong interest in food advertisement and children’s eating habit. The two scholarly reports I found below are to examine how fast food companies use social media to target children and effect their eating habit.
♥ How much food advertising is there on Australian television?
This report is written by Kathy Chapman, Penny Nicholas and Rajah Supramaniam, they are from the NSW Cancer Council. The purpose of this report is to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of television food advertising and provide data on current levels of food advertising in Australia.
“On weekdays, the number of advertisements increased throughout the day to peak at more than five advertisements per hour in the 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. time slot. The early morning time slot on Saturday was the most concentrated period for advertising unhealthy/non-core food with more than six advertisements screened per hour.”
This article is factual and well-research, the authors collected a total of 645hrs of TV advertisement between 7am to 9pm on two weekdays and both weekend days in four locations across Australia, and they found out 31% were food advertisement, and 81% of the food advertisement were unhealthy/non-core food advertisement. n addition, Saturday morning was the most concentrated period of unhealthy food advertisement, there could be more than 6 advertisements per hour at that period and that was the period when children were watching TV. Beyond that, food advertisement can affect children’s eating habit and food choice directly. These unhealthy food advertisements included fast food, takeaway and chocolate, which can get children’s attention easily.
The author’s position is to warn the Australian government to pay more attention in TV advertisements. I completely agree with the author’s position. As we know, the childhood obesity is a worldwide problem, even people aware that the heavy marketing of unhealthy food influence food choices and contribute to the incidence of overweight and obesity, especially in children, there is still a lack of effective regulation of unhealthy food advertisement in Australia. I think this is a common position, but it is important to let more people and the government to attach importance to this issue.
Chapman, K., Nicholas, P. & Supramaniam, R. 2006, ‘How much food advertising is there on Australian television?’, Health Promotion International, July 2006, Vol.21(3), pp.172-180.
♥ Digital Junk: Food and Beverage Marketing on Facebook
This report is written by Becky Freeman, Bridget Kelly, Louise Baur, Kathy Chapman, Simon Chapman, Tim Gill and Lesley King, Becky Freeman, Simon Chapman, and Lesley King are with the School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Bridget Kelly is with the School of Health and Society, University of Wollongong, Louise Baur is with the Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health and Kathy Chapman is with Health Strategies, Cancer Council. They are all experts on health management. This report has been published in ‘American Journal of Public Health’ on December 2014.
The aim of this report is to assess the amount, reach, and nature of energy-dense, nutrient poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing on Facebook. To collect data, the authors conducted a content analysis of the marketing techniques used by the 27 most popular food and beverage brand Facebook pages, such as Subway, Coca-Cola, Slurpee and Maltesers.
“Pages widely used marketing features unique to social media that increase consumer interaction and engagement.“
These food and beverage brand companies used user-generated content, such as children meal and toys, interactive games, apps and even place an order directly through Facebook to encourage consumer to purchase their product and to gain consumer’s ‘like’ on their Facebook page and feeds to achieve a great spreading. The report also shows adolescent and young adult Facebook user have more receptive to engaging with these pages and most of the users may be younger than 13. This is a serious issue that can cause children’s obesity rate growth.
This article is thought-provoking and comprehensive. The author’s position is to point out these fearful fact that can boost worldwide obesity rate growth. To deep research the Facebook media is a marginal position and I completely agree with the authors.
Freeman, B., Kelly, B., Baur, L., Chapman, K., Chapman, S., Gill, T. & King, L. 2014, ‘Digital Junk: Food and Beverage Marketing on Facebook’, The American Journal of Public Health, December 2014, Vol.104(12), pp. e56-64.
In conclusion, unhealthy food and beverage advertisement in social media is very dynamic and without an appropriate regulation. The government and/or related organization should start to push out effective regulations, such as the use of ‘healthy choice’ in food advertisement. Childhood obesity will not be solved if fast food advertisements continually actives on social media.
Obesity and healthy living is a topic that I always interested in especially after I came to Australia. Australia is a pleasant country that can make people get fat slowly without attention. Before I came to Australia, I was 40kg, and 4 years later, I am now 50kg and still growing. ‘What makes me get fat?’ ‘What change my eating habit?’ ‘Why can’t I lose weight?’ These question jumped into my mind after I stood on a weighing scale and saw the pointer pointed at 50. I know I am still under a normal BMI but I am just not happy with the fat in my body, and me being lack of exercises after I came to Australia. To solve my questions, I began to read some news and journal articles about obesity and healthy living. Here are some interesting articles that really inspired me and explained why Australian is keep getting fatter.
♥ Article 1: Eating too much salt linked to increased risk of childhood obesity
My first article collection is from Australian Food News. This article is to inform parents to pay more attention with children’s eating habits of salt eating. Deakin University researchers in Melbourne have found that children who eat more than the recommended amount of salt have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese.
“There are 70% of Australian children are eating over the maximum amount of salt recommended for good health.It is easy to eat over the maximum amount of salt because we use salt in our everyday foods such as bread, cheese, ham and sausages, etc.”
I think this article is trustworthy and reliable because Australian are salt and pepper lovers. We have table salt and table pepper on our dinner table which I think it’s connivance, but it also directly encourages people to have more salt.
The author’s position is to recommend people to change our eating habit and eat less salt. I completely agree with this position and I think this is a marginal position. Nowadays, most of the people would pay attention with sager eating and the government is thinking to have sugar tax to prevent people from overeating sugar. However, salt eating have not been looking out carefully. Higher intakes of salt are setting children up for a lifetime risk of future chronic disease such as high blood pressure and heart disease, thus it is important to let parents know the harm of salt eating.
Australian Food News 2016, 2016 ‘Eating too much salt linked to increased risk of childhood obesity’, viewed 30 July 2016, <http://ausfoodnews.com.au/2016/03/02/eating-too-much-salt-linked-to-increased-risk-of-childhood-obesity.html>.
♥ Article 2: Cost of kids’ sports uniforms, fees, lessons puts pressure on parents
This article is written by Peter Rolfe, a sports affairs reporter and regular contributor in Herald Sun base in Melbourne. He wrote this article to report the huge and necessary cost of kid’s physical activity expenses. Within this article, Peter examined the cost of a few kids’ physical activities cost and proved economic pressures on their parents. Registration fees, uniforms, shoes, sporting equipment, lessons and even gifts for coaches have pushed the cost of amateur sport out of reach for some families. In the meantime, to let children get enough physical activities can help to prevent children’s obesity rate growth.
This article is objective and comprehensive. Peter’s position is quite common, to point out the huge and necessary cost of physical activity expense. Even I think everyone in this country aware how physical activity is important to children and its high cost, it is still necessary to point out this fact to let more people pay attention to. I personally think the Australian’s gym fee and personal trainer fee is quite expensive. I live next to Virgin Active but I never went there for gym. We need a to pay $160 for the activation fee unless you want to sign a long term contract with them, we also need to pay $36 each week for the gym. I understand how important physical activities is, but the gym price is not encouraging me to join.
Rolfe, P. 2016, ‘Cost of kids’ sports uniforms, fees, lessons puts pressure on parents’, Herald Sun, 5 August, viewed 5 August 2016, <http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/cost-of-kids-sports-uniforms-fees-lessons-puts-pressure-on-parents/news-story/157fd593041ba3d83425a4cd451eca7e>.
♥ Article 3: The honest conversation we need to have about fat people
The third article is written by Amos Gill, who is a comedian and presenter of HIT 107 Breakfast in Adelaide. Amos was an obese person, he totally understands the feeling and the harm of being obese. Within this article, Amos uses his personal story to point out that even we know the harm of being obese we haven’t take it seriously.
Firstly, Amos pointed out we should talk more about obese people even we felt uncomfortable. We, as a society, have become far too obsessed with not hurting people’s feeling, but it is necessary to let obese people know if they are too fat and need to lose weight for their own health as we all know obesity will cause various diseases such as diabetes.
Secondary, Amos encouraged obese people to stop sugarcoating reality. Amos informed obese people to face reality and their health issue more seriously. Fat people have spent a large part of their lives sugarcoating things, such as believed they can be ‘healthy at any size.’ And this is not right.
Lastly, Amos pressured government to take some serious action to control obesity. Amos used an interesting angle to compare people’s thought and action about smoking and obesity, which came up a more interesting solution that even smoking and obesity both caused health issues, people and government still haven’t taken any serious action to control obesity like smoking.
I think this article is quite thought-provoking, and I agree with Amos’s position. However, I think it is a little bit offensive when Amos said ‘We don’t accommodate smokers on planes with ashtrays, so why should we accommodate the obese people with wider aisles and seats?’. I found that have a sense of rigour because there are many reasons cause obesity, such as people have a medical condition which causes them to be obese. Instead of stop providing wider aisles and seats, I think maybe we can charge a little bit more for a wider seat because it take more space, like business and economic seat has a different price.
Gill, A. 2016, ‘The honest conversation we need to have about fat people’, News, 2 August, viewed 2 August 2016, <www.news.com.au/lifestyle/health/health-problems/the-honest-conversation-we-need-to-have-about-fat-people/news-story/e9688705c1e8618895c12bab383b903c>.
This article is written by Sam Ikin, who is an online producer for ABC News Digital based in Hobart. He is writing for obese people who have s mental issue such as feeling stress, depressive and shameful of them being obese. He is also writing for us, the society.
Sam is not a specialist in obesity, but he was an obese person and he knows the mental health side of obesity is momentous. He wrote another opinion base article, ‘The eating disorder nobody wants to talk about’ in 2014 to share his personal story about being obese. He mentioned that the first thing people notice him was his obesity and he has been though a lot of judgement from the society which made him felt shameful.Mental health cause obese people being obese. Sam aspired obese people to control emotional eating, but the society has become an obstruction.
“We keep saying ‘eat less, exercise more’ to obese people, but that is too simplistic because there is more to it than that.”
Sam pointed out that mental health is the major trigger that causes obese people into a ‘vicious cycle’. We, as a society, we judge obese people and makes them feel worse about themselves, which drives them to eat more for release their stress and depression. The Australian Society made obese people difficult to escape the lure of comfort food. We have fast food advertisement is everywhere, and chocolate bars are placed at the checkout of every supermarket, etc.
This article is factual and well-researched. Sam’s position is to urge obese people to control emotions eating because at the end of the day, a successful resolution of obesity crisis will require that individuals initiate changes by themselves and for themselves. Compare to my last article, Sam goes for a marginal position. Amos looks forward government help to control obesity and Sam is encourage the individuals to control themselves. I completely agree mental health can cause obesity, however, I don’t think the solution of encouraging individuals to control emotional eating can work. Sam mentions that ‘eat less, exercise more is too simplistic’ at the beginning of the article. However, In my opinion, ‘To develop an eating plan’; ‘Get enough sleep’; ‘Get exercise when you can’, this is basically the same with ‘eat less, excises more.’ I think everyone aware that as well. It is not an effective solution to solve the mental health problem from the basis.
Ikin, S. 2016, ‘Emotional eating fuelling Australia's obesity epidemic, psychologist says’, ABC News, 18 February, viewed 31 July 2016, <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-18/emotional-eating-fuelling-australias-obesity-epidemic/7175204>.
♥ Article 5: Fast food companies use social networking sites to target children
My last article collection, which is my favourite, is written by Park Thaichon, an assistant professor of marketing in S P Jain School of global management. Park’s research interests include dark marketing, consumer behaviour, relationship marketing and integrated marketing communications. Within this article, Park went for an interesting angle and pointed out the fast food companies use social networking sites to target children and leads children to like the purchase of advertised food and change their eating habits, beyond that, existing regulation of food adverting in Australia is very limited, especially in digital platform.
“Fast food companies target children’s novelty, and ‘made’ them ‘like’ their Facebook page and/or sign up for their Twitter feeds by luring them for toys or discounts.”
On Facebook, while individual liking a page or posting a comment, his/her Facebook friends can see their activities in the Newsfeeds. Moreover, children are hard to detect the boundaries between online content and pure adverting on social media sites. Fast food companies use a wide range of behavioural advertising, such as an eye-catching image to target audience base on their web browsing behaviour.
This article is factual, thought-provoking and critical. Park’s position is to urge Australian government to have more regulation of food advertising to children especially in digital platform. I completely agree with Park. Last month, a Hungry Jack anti-seagull chip package was all around my Facebook. It is a silver package that can reflect light and also have the words “shoo”, “scram” and “vamoose” printed on them, which I think it is super cool. I was never a Hungry Jack fan, but this directly encourages me to try Hungry Jack because of this super cool packaging. I admit the advertisement of fast food companies are fabulous, they always appear on my social media apps such as Facebook and Instagram. And just like Park said, these completely change my eating habits! Thus, I agree with the Park’s position, the Australian government should have more regulation of food advertising on social media sites.
Thaichon, P. 2016, ‘Fast food companies use social networking sites to target children’, The Conversation, 5 August, viewed 5 August 2016, <http://theconversation.com/fast-food-companies-use-social-networking-sites-to-target-children-63189>.
After finishing reading my article collections, I found out I had a strong interest in advertising. Australia’s fast food industry is large and flourishing, I am interested in how and how frequently does fast food advertisement come into our daily. I think these topics are worth to research as fast food plays an important role in Australian’s obesity.
Bigstock. 2015, ‘Eat Less Salt!’, Harvard, viewed 30 July 2016, < http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/5-ways-to-use-less-salt >.
Smith, E. 2016, ‘Kitted out in their sport gear’, Herald Sun, viewed 5 August 2016, < http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/cost-of-kids-sports-uniforms-fees-lessons-puts-pressure-on-parents/news-story/157fd593041ba3d83425a4cd451eca7e >.
Your Fat Friend. 2016, ‘What it’s like to be that fat person sitting next to you on the plane’, Future Travel, viewed 2 August 2016, < https://futuretravel.today/what-it-s-like-to-be-that-fat-person-sitting-next-to-you-on-the-plane-85006e263778#.textsf2uc >.
Thomas, J. 2014, ‘I Eat A Lot And That’s OK’, Triathlon, viewed 5 August 2016, < http://triathlon.competitor.com/2012/08/features/triathlife-with-jesse-thomas-i-eat-a-lot-and-thats-ok_60088 >.
Hungry Jack’s. 2016, ‘Pack That Scares Gulls’, Mumbrella, viewed 30 July 2016, < https://mumbrella.com.au/hungry-jacks-announces-new-chips-anti-seagull-packaging-380488 >.